Tuesday, December 22, 2009
Here is the Position Statement of the 55 state association Technical Directors on the position of goalkeeper.
We believe that goalkeepers should not be a feature of play at the U-6 and U-8 age groups. All players in these age groups should be allowed to run around the field and chase the "toy," a.k.a – the ball. For teams in the U-10 and older age groups, goalkeepers should become a regular feature of play. However, young players in the U-10, U-12 and U-14 age groups should not begin to specialize in any position at this time in their development.
The analysis of most soccer experts is that small-sided games for young children are most beneficial for learning basic motor skills, learning basic rules and fundamental concepts of the game. They also learn how to interact with their peers within a game involving a ball. What is not supported is the use of goalkeepers in this format. Children want to run, kick the ball and score goals. Every child should experience the triumph and success of scoring a goal. They don't do well when told to stand in one place. If the action is at the other end of the field, a young goalkeeper will find some other activity to hold his or her attention.
Young children have great difficulty tracking moving objects, especially if they are in the air. Most will duck or throw hands in front of the face if the ball comes toward the head. Children younger than ten are very reactionary in their movement behavior. Anticipating where the ball might be played is a skill that has not yet developed. This ability does not really develop until age nine or ten. Prior to age nine visual tracking acuity is not fully developed. Players have difficulty accurately tracking long kicks or the ball above the ground. Beginning at approximately age ten one's visual tracking acuity achieves an adult pattern.
Striking the ball at a small target accurately is a challenge for all children. Goalkeepers restrict the opportunities to score goals to a select few players. Young children "stuck in goal" will not develop goalkeeping skills. Young players are more likely to get hit with the ball than to actually "save it."
It is important to wait until children are better able to physically, mentally and emotionally to handle the demands of being a goalkeeper. There are no goalkeepers in the 3 vs. 3 and 4 vs. 4 format through age eight and then introduce goalkeeping in the 6 vs. 6 format beginning at age nine. This still allows plenty of time for children to grow up and be the best goalkeepers they can be and most likely keep them engaged in playing soccer for many years to come. Once players take on the goalkeeper role they tend to grow in the position through three general stages. Those stages are shot blocker, shot stopper and finally goalkeeper.
The shot blocker stage is one where the goalkeeper simply reacts to shots after they have been taken. He or she tries to get into position to make saves and these literally are sometimes merely blocking a shot and not making a clean catch. The attacking role of the shot blocker is usually just a punt of the ball downfield.
At the shot stopper stage a player has progressed to not only making saves after a shot is taken but also being able to anticipate shots. With this improved ability to read the game the shot stopper gets into better positions to make saves and begins to stop shots from being taken in the first place. The shot stopper now comes out on through balls and collects them before a shot is taken. The shot stopper also cuts out crosses before opponents can get to the ball. The shot stopper comes out in one-on-one situations and takes the ball off the attacker's feet. The shot stopper can deal with the ball both before and after a shot is made. Distribution with some tactical thought on the attack is also developing for the shot stopper.
The goalkeeper stage sees your player with all of the talents of the shot stopper and then some. The goalkeeper is the complete package. The goalkeeper is highly athletic and physically fit. The goalkeeper is mentally tough, composed and confident. The goalkeeper has the full set of skills for the role to both win the ball (defending techniques) and to distribute the ball (attacking techniques). A full-fledged goalkeeper is indeed the last line of defense and the first line of attack. A goalkeeper not only makes saves but contributes to the attack with tactical and skillful distribution of the ball. The goalkeeper is physically and verbally connected to the rest of the team no matter where the ball is on the field. A first-rate goalkeeper is mentally involved in the entire match and is therefore physically ready when the time comes to perform.[i]
So from U-10 to U-19 teach players when they are in goal to follow these rules.
Cardinal Rules of Goalkeeping [ii]
1. Go for everything!
You may not be able to stop every shot that comes your way, but if you make the attempt you will find that you are stopping shots you never before thought possible. You will also have the personal satisfaction that at least you made the attempt and your teammates will be more forgiving even if you miss.
2. After a save – get up quickly!
If you have gone to the ground to make a save get back on your feet as fast as possible. Look for a fast break distribution or to direct your teammates into position to receive a build-up distribution. This aspect is particularly important if you are injured. You cannot show weakness, you may tend to your injury after you have started the counterattack. This will particularly intimidate your opponents and raise the confidence in your teammates.
3. Do not be half-hearted --- 100% effort!
Every time you make a play it must be with all of your ability. If you go half way you will miss saves and injure yourself.
4. Communicate loudly!
You must constantly give brief instructions when on defense. When your team is on the attack, come to the top of your penalty area or beyond and talk to your teammates and offer support to the defenders. Be mentally involved in the entire match, no matter where the ball is.
5. No excuses! No whining! Just get on with the match.
If a goal is scored against you, a corner kick is given up or the shot is a near miss, do NOT yell at your teammates even if it's their fault. Do NOT hang your head; kick the ground or the post if it was your fault. During the match is no time to point fingers or make excuses. The play is over, it's ancient history; get on with playing the remainder of the match. Focus on what lies ahead!
[i] Wait Until They're Ready by Dr. David Carr; 2000
[ii] Cardinal Rules of Goalkeeping by Winston Dubose and Sam Snow; 1979