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Coaches Blog

Sam's Blog is a bi-weekly addition to the US Youth Soccer Blog. Sam Snow is the Coaching Director for US Youth Soccer.


Player Development - Measuring Development

Sam Snow

This entry will continue with excerpts from US Youth Soccer documents that address player development. The Vision document is a good overarching statement and philosophy that is worthwhile for any youth soccer stakeholder to read. It begins with this simple question…

How do we measure the development of a single player?

Indeed how do we measure player development? Too often in America a professional sports model is used in measuring youth sports success. Youth soccer is not immune to this misapplied standard. For soccer the situation is made worse by a desire of many adults to use measuring tools from other sports. In fact it is maddening to many adults that soccer is not as black and white as with some sports in judging successful play. Many team sports played in our nation are statistically driven and coach centered. Soccer is neither of those!  Indeed just like the Laws of the Game our sport has many shades of grey within it  As a player centered sport some coaches become disillusioned as they learn that they are the ‘guide on the side’ and not the ‘sage on the stage’. Too many soccer coaches bring a “Pattonesque” attitude to the youth sport environment. This coach-centered perspective has been handed down to us from other sports and coaching styles of past generations.

In many sports the coach makes crucial decisions during the competition. In soccer players make the primary decisions during the match. The coach’s decisions are of secondary importance. The ego-centric personality will find coaching soccer troublesome. The other significant group of adults at a youth soccer match is parents. They too often have their view of the match colored by the professional model and by a view of "coaching" that is portrayed in the sports media  Although it is changing, the majority of parents watching their kids play soccer have never played the game.  In fact the statistics show that most of today’s parents never played any team sport. So their only exposure on how to measure sporting success is gleaned from the sports media. The sports media predominately report on adult teams at the college and professional levels. These adult measurements of team performance should not and cannot be applied to youth sports.

The analogy can be made to a youngster’s academic development in preparation for work in the adult business world. While the child is in primary and secondary school the corporate world measurements of success are not applied. Those business assessments are not yet appropriate because the school-aged student does not yet have the tools to compete in the adult business environment. The knowledge and skills to be a competitor in business are still being taught and learned. This holds true in soccer as well!

Soccer is an adult game designed by adults for adults to play. Adults enjoy the game so much that we have shared it with our children. Yet adults err when we bring our adult performance and outcome based thinking into the developing player’s world.

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Stop the Ls


In the National Youth Coaching Course we talk about avoiding the three L’s during a training session. Those three L’s are Lines, Lectures and Laps. The cartoon below, in its own way, says it all. You see kids in school who have been listening to lectures, so why would a coach do that to them after school at soccer practice? The rule of thumb for all coaches, at all levels of soccer, is talk less and play more.


In the cartoon you also see the boy daydreaming about a drill of dribbling through the cones. The odds are the rest of his teammates are in a line at the end of the line of cones waiting for their turn to dribble through them. Boring! Ideally, no lines of players in a training session, but if there’s no way around it then at least keep it to several short lines of players – say three max.

Finally, in the cartoon you see the boy awakened from his daydream by his teacher (who when wearing shorts and out on a soccer field is known as the coach). The youngster is sure that he’ll be punished by running laps. Frequently coaches use running as a punishment for misbehavior during a training session. Some coaches have even used running as a punishment for an entire team at the end of a match if the team did not meet the coach’s expectations of performance. For the individual and the team using running as a punishment hurts team morale more than it solves any behavior problem. First of all, soccer is a game that requires a lot of running. You have to like running to play the game. Why give something so integral to the sport a negative connotation both mentally and emotionally for the players? This is just the opposite of what the coach should be trying to achieve in developing a team. If punishment is needed for misbehavior then there are many other options the coach could use other than running as punishment. Soccer coaches should never use running as a punishment!

Coaches, let’s unite to stamp out the three L’s in youth soccer!

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Street Soccer In War Zone

Sam Snow

This entry is from Andrew Breithaupt. He is a district coach for US Youth Soccer ODP Europe in Stuttgart, Germany.  He holds the “D” License and the National Youth License.  Andrew had a recent trip to Kosovo and had this to say upon his return.

“Kosovo is small country in the Balkans about the size of Wisconsin that most people know nothing about. The country and its people continue to recover from one of the worst civil wars in Europe since World War II.

Recently, I traveled to Kosovo providing humanitarian aid. In a remote area where we were working was a bunch of kids hanging around all day. They watched the entire day while their families herded around the livestock they owned.

The kids had a single torn up old soccer ball that barely held air while they kicked it around. I turned around at the gate as the ball accidentally hit my feet while passing by. I played it back and they motioned for me to join them playing. I dropped my gear and jumped into the play, work boots and all. For the next 30 min we played and played. They didn't speak a bit of English but that just didn't matter, all we needed was the ball and the game. 

Parents in the US often worry about turf fields not being open enough, the newest $200 cleats being sold out, or their child not getting to start the match every game. These kids had one torn up ball among them, some only had an old pair of Crocs on their feet, and one had no shoes at all.  We played on a gravel road with giant tank track ruts on both side and a ditch. The goals were a couple rocks drug over. There was no out of play, they played thru the ditches, gravel, and even boulders like they were just another defender. A couple of them would make an ODP team no question and probably never had a day of training in their life. They just played the game and laughed.

They really put the essence of the game into perspective for me in a way I'd never thought.  It was an experience I'll never forget.”

Stree Soccer Blog

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Player Development - Coaching Technique

Sam Snow

Continuing with a series of postings that highlight free coaching documents form US Youth Soccer here is an excerpt from the Skills School Manual. There is also a full DVD that goes with this manual. Some of the video clips from that DVD are posted on the US Youth Soccer YouTube channel.

Coaching Technique

The game will show you what the player needs to practice.

In this manual the coach will find the basics of all ball skills. From this core set of techniques the growing player will be able to add on many variations and subtleties to the techniques. This fact most likely applies to players fifteen years of age and older as they fully mature athletically and come to understand how to use a variety of skills in varying game situations. Do not let the developing player’s game become obsessed with frills or skills that, while useful, are used rarely. Be competent in the basic orthodox techniques first. But once that standard has been reached then embroider the player’s skills with the less orthodox techniques as they are serious, positive skills which will help the team and not just please spectators.

During the first fourteen years of a young player’s career the coaching emphasis must be on technique. The actual execution of a movement is always in the realm of technique. The challenge of “when and why” to use a movement is one of tactics. In this manual the focus is the “how to”; that is on technique. Technique is the body’s mechanical execution to affect the ball; for example receiving, catching, shooting, dribbling, deflecting, etc. It is one of the four components of the game and leads to ball skill. Skill is being able to execute a technique under the pressure of opponents in tight space and most likely on the move. Without ball skill a player cannot execute tactics. Some players will:

  • be able to do a technique in an activity but fail to apply it as skill when under pressure from opponents
  • be competent with the ball but not outstanding
  • be technical but not skillful, while others will be skillful but not technical
  • be capable of executing some skills against one level of opponent but not another


Players gain more trust and respect for a coach who can help them improve their technique. The result is confident use of new skills in matches. Motivated players spend time working on their skills. Players will appreciate the importance and thrill of learning new techniques and refining existing ones if the coach creates the proper training environment. Then the players begin to equate fun with improvement.

Novice coaches often find themselves in a Catch 22 at training sessions. They can influence young players by helping them develop techniques, but some coaches don’t know enough about the techniques they are teaching to offer relevant advice.

The execution of a technique is broken down into three phases:

PREPARATION – the movements leading up to contact with the ball.

  • focus on the feet first as they will impact what happens with the rest of the body and they must get the body to the ball
  • look at the distribution of body weight (body posture), the angle of the approach to the ball, the position of the body and limbs in relation to the ball, the position and steadiness of the head, the position and shape of controlling surfaces and the rotation of the body into contact with the ball
  • eyes on the ball


CONTACT – the placement of the feet and the posture of the body upon contact with the ball.

  • look for the distribution of body weight and how it impacts balance
  • observe the hip and shoulder positions, the position of the supporting leg(s), the contact point with the ball and the movement of the limbs
  • eyes on the ball


FOLLOW THROUGH – the movement occurring after contact with the ball.

  • again focus on the distribution of body weight and posture
  • is the follow through complete or halted too soon
  • eyes on the ball


Technique should be taught in a progressive manner throughout a player’s career. Every technique coached at one age must be reinforced at the next age. Techniques taught at 6 and Under (6-U) must be reinforced at 8 and Under (8-U), 10 and Under (10-U), 12 and Under (12-U) and 14 and Under (14-U). What was learned at a previous age group or groups must be refined at the next age group. During the childhood years of soccer the general progression of the child’s experience with the ball is for the 6-U age group ~ manipulating the ball, for the 8-U age group ~ propelling the ball and for the 10-U age group ~ mastering the ball.

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