Thursday, March 10, 2011
Recently Mike Woitalla, executive editor of Soccer America, wrote an article in Youth Soccer Insider on reinventing the ball
. The article talks about using different types of balls in training to help players improve their feel for the ball. The article opens with these lines: "It seems to me that playing soccer with different kinds of balls is good for children's skill development. I don't have scientific evidence for this, but a lot of anecdotes from great players."
US Youth Soccer agrees with the use of different types of balls in training to help players developing better skills. We advocate this approach in the 'street soccer' portion of the National Youth License. We also talk about playing these training games sometimes on different surfaces which affects the bounce and roll of the ball. We teach coaches that occasionally using different types of balls and/or playing on a different surface will improve players visual perception of the way a ball rolls, bounces, spins and moves through the air. That variety broadens and deepens players' skills at reading the movement of the ball and the skills then to control or propel it. While as coaches we came to this practice through educated experience and the results are anecdotal, there are theories from physical education supporting the approach.
- Principle of Variable Practice: Block practice aids performance while variable practice aids in learning. Variable practice causes an increase in attention. The variables in this case are the type of ball being used or the type of surface on which the game is taking place or both for more advanced players.
- Principle of Feedback: Internal and external sources of information about motor performance are essential for learning to take place. The immediate feedback the player receives here is from the action of the ball when received or propelled by the player.
- Principle of Skill Improvement: The development of motor skills progresses along a continuum from least mature to most mature. The rate of progression and the amount of progress within an individual depends upon the interaction of nature and nurture. We know from both practical experience and research on skill acquisition that variable practice accelerates skill development. This is especially important in soccer where the game conditions change constantly – hard field, muddy field, strong wind, no wind, quality of ball in the match, etc.
- Principle of Transfer: The more identical two tasks are the greater the possibility that positive transfer will occur. Practice conditions should match the conditions in which the motor skill is going to be used. By using different types of balls in small-sided games in training transference is more likely into matches.
- Principle of Practice: Practicing the motor skill correctly is essential for learning to take place. Some coaches will think this principle supports a more assembly line approach to learning skills, but the opposite is true. The variety of practice in the environment of small-sided games and different types of balls mimics the multitude of variations a player will face in a match. Yes most training should occur with the proper soccer ball for the age group. However the use of other types of balls takes skill acquisition a step further and truly challenges players in a fun way.
- Principle of Interest: A player's attitude toward learning a skill determines for the most part the amount and kind of learning that takes place. Using different types of balls and sometimes playing in different environments or on different surfaces will grab youngsters attention and give them fun new challenges.
- Principle of Whole–Part Learning: The complexity of the skill to learn and the player's ability determines whether it is more efficient to teach the whole skill or break the skill into component parts. We advocate a games-based approach to learning skills so that the players can connect when and how to use a particular skill to the situation in the game. For example, the type of ball being used in the training game will be a determining factor to make a short or long pass, or no pass at all, or just dribble and/or shield. Variety is the spice of exciting and challenging training sessions. Using different types of balls in training is one way to create a good learning environment for young players.
Take a look at the US Youth Soccer DVD Skills School – developing essential soccer techniques. There is also an accompanying document, Skills School - Fundamental Ball Skills, for your use.