Check out the weekly blogs

Online education from US Youth Soccer

Clubhouse

Play for a Change

Play for a Change

US Youth Soccer Intagram!

Check out the national tournament database

Sports Authority

Marketplace

Wilson Trophy Company

Happy Family

Nesquik

Capri Sun

Play Positive Banner

Print Page Share

Coaches Blog

Sam's Blog is a bi-weekly addition to the US Youth Soccer Blog. Sam Snow is the Coaching Director for US Youth Soccer.

 

Effective Communicators

Sam Snow

Successful Coaches are Effective Communicators

For players to become self-reliant you must not micromanage the game for them.  As a player-centered sport, some coaches become disillusioned as they learn that they are the 'guide on the side' and not the 'sage on the stage'.  In many sports, the coach makes crucial decisions during the competition.  This coach-centered perspective has been handed down to us from other sports and coaching styles of past generations.

"Talking too much is a big danger for a coach.  The words get lost in the wind." – Sir Alex Ferguson

In soccer, players make the primary decisions during the match.  The coach's decisions are of secondary importance.  The ego-centric personality will find coaching soccer troublesome.   During the match you can call out some general reminders, 'mark up' for example, but for the most part remain quiet.  But do indeed yell out praise, loudly!  For the most part, sit and silently observe the match.  It's your players who should be heard the most during a match. 

Now, some team supporters will think that you are not coaching if you are not constantly talking, so you will have to educate them on why this chatter diverts players' attention.  Team supporters too often have their view of the match colored by the professional model and by a view of coaching that is portrayed in the sports media.  In a coach-centered sport with frequent stoppages in play and time-outs, the coach takes on a direct role during the game.  Soccer does not stop except for a serious injury and half-time, so the coach has only an indirect role during the match.

You should attempt to have players play for an extended period of time.  The players are thus asked to solve their own problems on the field instead of having the coach make substitutions in order to solve the problem for them.  Coaches should not 'platoon players' in and out of games in order to wear an opponent down.  Unlike most team sports, soccer is a player's game, not a coach's game.  Substitutions allow for all players to play and will speed development for a greater number of players.  You should decide before the match or tournament what the policy will be regarding substitutions – then stick to it.

One outcome of sensible substitutions and less talk by the coach during matches is room to grow for the players.  In this fertile game environment some of your players will grow as team leaders.  This will begin with a player directing one or two players and, in time, the entire team.  Leaders will guide and inspire the team from within.

"Over-coaching is the worst thing you can do to a player." – Dean Smith

I recommend reading the recent article in Youth Soccer Insider [link].
 

Competitive Coaches in Academies

Sam Snow

What would you expect your competitive coaches to realistically do for the youth/Academy division of a club?

I have had those paid coaches take charge of a younger age group. So, let's say it's the head coach for the U-17 premier division team in the club. I would have that coach also be in charge of the U-11 age group coaches in the club. He or she would provide three sample lesson plans each month to those U-11 coaches in the club. He would also run one demo session per month for all of the U-11 coaches using one of the club's U-11 teams. The team used for the demo session would change each month. I also require this competitive coach to go to the U-11 matches at home at least one time each month to assess not only the play of the U-11 kids, but also the behavior and game management of the coaches.

Another approach is to have the paid coaches work with several different age groups. For example a coach could work with a U-10, U-13 and U-17 team. This gives continuity to the developmental philosophy since the coach lives the need to develop the younger age groups in preparation for an older age division. The approach also gives the coach a broader experience, thus also developing the coaching staff from within the club.

Finally, no matter the club structure and whether the coaches are paid or volunteer, it is best to rotate coaches every two years. The players grow from the varied experiences of being exposed to different coaches with different styles and approaches to playing the game. Both players and coaches get into routines if they stay together for too long. By rotating the coaches, the coaches have the opportunity to work with either gender, several age groups and levels of play. 
 

Build Culture Excellence

Sam Snow

Occasionally I am asked questions about the club environment. Most of those questions are about problems such as dealing with belligerent coaches or the blind eye that club administrators turn when a team is winning but deeper life lessons are not being taught.

Sometimes though, the question is about how can our club improve what we are doing? Here's one such question that came across my desk.

How would you help build and create a culture of excellence? E.g. training, uniforms, standards, expectations?

I think the culture begins with the leaders in the club.  That will be the top administrators and coaches, and certainly having the full board of directors on board is a major plus; they must walk the talk, so to speak, when it comes to the club's mission statement and philosophy.  The next most important group to get on track to create a culture of excellence is the parents.  There is no doubt this is challenging and a never-ending aspect of the culture, but in the end it is the most important.  The parents influence all others in the club; players, coaches and administrators – in that order.

Working with the parents regarding the sporting experience of children though is an area still largely ignored by clubs. Most still believe the priority for their efforts is player development. That once was the case, but not today. The reality is that the number one priority is education of the soccer parent. That education is not necessarily about the tactics of the game or the rules for the age group. It certainly isn't about how to raise children. No, it's about the environment at matches, the either positive or infamous ride home, the understanding of the long term goals of youth soccer participation and it's about the management of adult expectations of the return on investment. It is about being a supportive group for the youth soccer experience. Clearly the majority of parents fall into exactly that category as evidenced by the large numbers of young people playing the game all across our nation. The Parents section of the US Youth Soccer website has quality resources for clubs and parents: /parents/. I encourage you to take advantage of the free materials and guidance there.

For a culture of excellence then to be understood and embraced by the club members the leaders must LEAD. Begin that endeavor by following these objectives of leadership. An interesting way to think about leadership in a succinct manner:

Leadership Characteristics:
-           Take accountability for results
-           Create direction and focus
-           Set the bar high
-           High energy level
-           Always willing to try new things
-           Unleash energy and talent in operations
-           Self-driven
-           Prioritize speed

Some of these elements become challenging when they are out of our direct control.  For those that are in our control, we can embrace them as they help us make forward strides and have significant impacts.

I'll close with one of my favorite passages from a quality sports leader which is taught in the National Youth License coaching course.

"There are many people, particularly in sports who think that success and excellence are the same thing and they are not the same thing. Excellence is something that is lasting and dependable and largely within a person's control. In contrast, success is perishable and is often outside our control… If you strive for excellence, you will probably be successful eventually… People who put excellence in first place have the patience to end up with success… An additional burden for the victim of the success mentality is that he/she is threatened by success of others and resents real excellence. In contrast, the person fascinated by quality is excited when he/she sees it in others."

Joe Paterno – Penn State football coach – 1990
 

Reinventing the ball

Sam Snow

Recently Mike Woitalla, executive editor of Soccer America, wrote an article in Youth Soccer Insider on reinventing the ball. The article talks about using different types of balls in training to help players improve their feel for the ball. The article opens with these lines: "It seems to me that playing soccer with different kinds of balls is good for children's skill development. I don't have scientific evidence for this, but a lot of anecdotes from great players."
 
US Youth Soccer agrees with the use of different types of balls in training to help players developing better skills.  We advocate this approach in the 'street soccer' portion of the National Youth License.  We also talk about playing these training games sometimes on different surfaces which affects the bounce and roll of the ball.  We teach coaches that occasionally using different types of balls and/or playing on a different surface will improve players visual perception of the way a ball rolls, bounces, spins and moves through the air.  That variety broadens and deepens players' skills at reading the movement of the ball and the skills then to control or propel it.  While as coaches we came to this practice through educated experience and the results are anecdotal, there are theories from physical education supporting the approach.
 
  • Principle of Variable Practice:  Block practice aids performance while variable practice aids in learning.  Variable practice causes an increase in attention.  The variables in this case are the type of ball being used or the type of surface on which the game is taking place or both for more advanced players.

  • Principle of Feedback:  Internal and external sources of information about motor performance are essential for learning to take place.  The immediate feedback the player receives here is from the action of the ball when received or propelled by the player.

  • Principle of Skill Improvement:  The development of motor skills progresses along a continuum from least mature to most mature.  The rate of progression and the amount of progress within an individual depends upon the interaction of nature and nurture.  We know from both practical experience and research on skill acquisition that variable practice accelerates skill development.  This is especially important in soccer where the game conditions change constantly – hard field, muddy field, strong wind, no wind, quality of ball in the match, etc.

  • Principle of Transfer:  The more identical two tasks are the greater the possibility that positive transfer will occur.  Practice conditions should match the conditions in which the motor skill is going to be used.  By using different types of balls in small-sided games in training transference is more likely into matches.

  • Principle of Practice:  Practicing the motor skill correctly is essential for learning to take place.  Some coaches will think this principle supports a more assembly line approach to learning skills, but the opposite is true.  The variety of practice in the environment of small-sided games and different types of balls mimics the multitude of variations a player will face in a match.  Yes most training should occur with the proper soccer ball for the age group.  However the use of other types of balls takes skill acquisition a step further and truly challenges players in a fun way.

  • Principle of Interest:  A player's attitude toward learning a skill determines for the most part the amount and kind of learning that takes place.  Using different types of balls and sometimes playing in different environments or on different surfaces will grab youngsters attention and give them fun new challenges.

  • Principle of Whole–Part Learning:  The complexity of the skill to learn and the player's ability determines whether it is more efficient to teach the whole skill or break the skill into component parts.  We advocate a games-based approach to learning skills so that the players can connect when and how to use a particular skill to the situation in the game.  For example, the type of ball being used in the training game will be a determining factor to make a short or long pass, or no pass at all, or just dribble and/or shield. Variety is the spice of exciting and challenging training sessions.  Using different types of balls in training is one way to create a good learning environment for young players.

Take a look at the US Youth Soccer DVD Skills School – developing essential soccer techniques. There is also an accompanying document, Skills School - Fundamental Ball Skills, for your use.