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Coaches Blog

Sam's Blog is a bi-weekly addition to the US Youth Soccer Blog. Sam Snow is the Coaching Director for US Youth Soccer.

 

Why No Keeper until U-10?

Sam Snow

Here is the Position Statement of the 55 state association Technical Directors on the position of goalkeeper.

We believe that goalkeepers should not be a feature of play at the U-6 and U-8 age groups. All players in these age groups should be allowed to run around the field and chase the "toy," a.k.a – the ball. For teams in the U-10 and older age groups, goalkeepers should become a regular feature of play. However, young players in the U-10, U-12 and U-14 age groups should not begin to specialize in any position at this time in their development.
 
The analysis of most soccer experts is that small-sided games for young children are most beneficial for learning basic motor skills, learning basic rules and fundamental concepts of the game. They also learn how to interact with their peers within a game involving a ball. What is not supported is the use of goalkeepers in this format. Children want to run, kick the ball and score goals. Every child should experience the triumph and success of scoring a goal. They don't do well when told to stand in one place. If the action is at the other end of the field, a young goalkeeper will find some other activity to hold his or her attention.

Young children have great difficulty tracking moving objects, especially if they are in the air. Most will duck or throw hands in front of the face if the ball comes toward the head. Children younger than ten are very reactionary in their movement behavior. Anticipating where the ball might be played is a skill that has not yet developed. This ability does not really develop until age nine or ten. Prior to age nine visual tracking acuity is not fully developed. Players have difficulty accurately tracking long kicks or the ball above the ground.  Beginning at approximately age ten one's visual tracking acuity achieves an adult pattern. 

Striking the ball at a small target accurately is a challenge for all children. Goalkeepers restrict the opportunities to score goals to a select few players. Young children "stuck in goal" will not develop goalkeeping skills. Young players are more likely to get hit with the ball than to actually "save it."

It is important to wait until children are better able to physically, mentally and emotionally to handle the demands of being a goalkeeper. There are no goalkeepers in the 3 vs. 3 and 4 vs. 4 format through age eight and then introduce goalkeeping in the 6 vs. 6 format beginning at age nine. This still allows plenty of time for children to grow up and be the best goalkeepers they can be and most likely keep them engaged in playing soccer for many years to come. Once players take on the goalkeeper role they tend to grow in the position through three general stages. Those stages are shot blocker, shot stopper and finally goalkeeper.

The shot blocker stage is one where the goalkeeper simply reacts to shots after they have been taken. He or she tries to get into position to make saves and these literally are sometimes merely blocking a shot and not making a clean catch. The attacking role of the shot blocker is usually just a punt of the ball downfield.

At the shot stopper stage a player has progressed to not only making saves after a shot is taken but also being able to anticipate shots. With this improved ability to read the game the shot stopper gets into better positions to make saves and begins to stop shots from being taken in the first place. The shot stopper now comes out on through balls and collects them before a shot is taken. The shot stopper also cuts out crosses before opponents can get to the ball. The shot stopper comes out in one-on-one situations and takes the ball off the attacker's feet. The shot stopper can deal with the ball both before and after a shot is made. Distribution with some tactical thought on the attack is also developing for the shot stopper.

The goalkeeper stage sees your player with all of the talents of the shot stopper and then some. The goalkeeper is the complete package. The goalkeeper is highly athletic and physically fit. The goalkeeper is mentally tough, composed and confident. The goalkeeper has the full set of skills for the role to both win the ball (defending techniques) and to distribute the ball (attacking techniques). A full-fledged goalkeeper is indeed the last line of defense and the first line of attack. A goalkeeper not only makes saves but contributes to the attack with tactical and skillful distribution of the ball. The goalkeeper is physically and verbally connected to the rest of the team no matter where the ball is on the field. A first-rate goalkeeper is mentally involved in the entire match and is therefore physically ready when the time comes to perform.[i]

So from U-10 to U-19 teach players when they are in goal to follow these rules.

Cardinal Rules of Goalkeeping [ii]

1.      
Go for everything!
You may not be able to stop every shot that comes your way, but if you make the attempt you will find that you are stopping shots you never before thought possible. You will also have the personal satisfaction that at least you made the attempt and your teammates will be more forgiving even if you miss.

2.      
After a save – get up quickly!
If you have gone to the ground to make a save get back on your feet as fast as possible. Look for a fast break distribution or to direct your teammates into position to receive a build-up distribution. This aspect is particularly important if you are injured. You cannot show weakness, you may tend to your injury after you have started the counterattack. This will particularly intimidate your opponents and raise the confidence in your teammates.
 
3.       Do not be half-hearted --- 100% effort!
Every time you make a play it must be with all of your ability. If you go half way you will miss saves and injure yourself.

4.      
Communicate loudly!
You must constantly give brief instructions when on defense. When your team is on the attack, come to the top of your penalty area or beyond and talk to your teammates and offer support to the defenders. Be mentally involved in the entire match, no matter where the ball is.

5.      
No excuses! No whining! Just get on with the match.
If a goal is scored against you, a corner kick is given up or the shot is a near miss, do NOT yell at your teammates even if it's their fault. Do NOT hang your head; kick the ground or the post if it was your fault. During the match is no time to point fingers or make excuses. The play is over, it's ancient history; get on with playing the remainder of the match. Focus on what lies ahead!


[i] Wait Until They're Ready by Dr. David Carr; 2000
[ii] Cardinal Rules of Goalkeeping by Winston Dubose and Sam Snow; 1979
 

Warm-up and Cool-down

Sam Snow

Over the last two years I have made a point of attending matches at the US Youth Soccer National Championship Series, the US Youth Soccer Presidents Cup and the US Youth Soccer Olympic Development Program Championships. At those tournaments, coaches and tournament organizers need to provide for appropriate warm-up and cool-down for the teams. By and large this is being done for the warm-up, but not for the cool-down. 

Impacting the physical performance was the warm-up, cool-down and off the field habits. While all of the warm-up routines seemed to be well conceived and executed, a few were far too long. A 45 minute warm-up is not needed in heat and humidity. Cool-down was not done at all in some cases and only moderately in other cases. A proper cool-down of about 20-30 minutes is in order at this level of play and in summer conditions. It was noted that some teams took massages away from the fields as a part of their regeneration, which is recommended to all teams.

At all venues appropriate space must be designated for team warm-up and cool-down. With so little time between matches the game field itself is not always available to meet these needs. A part of venue selection and layout must be adequate and safe areas blocked off for team preparations. At the end of a match the teams need to complete a cool-down and the two teams coming on need to continue their warm-up. The teams in the cool-down phase should adequately hydrate, then move their gear to the touchline beside the end quarter of the field and then conduct the cool-down in the area designated in the diagram below. The teams in the warm-up phase have the rest of the pitch to use. The teams in the cool-down phase may use the designated area for ten minutes and then clear that space for the teams in the warm-up phase.

alt
 

TOPSoccer in Florida

Sam Snow

Well, it was a great day this past Saturday in Boca Raton, Fla., where a US Youth Soccer TOPSoccer coaching course was hosted by Florida Youth Soccer. The host club, Soccer Association of Boca Raton, did a wonderful job with the facilities and their hospitality was really first class. I always enjoy teaching this course and this one was no exception. The people involved were truly dedicated to the TOPSoccer mission and they gave up their time and money to continue their own education so that they can improve their efforts to the TOPSoccer players.

As you may know, the US Youth Soccer TOPSoccer coaching course is a four hour long coaching course introducing coaches to working with TOPSoccer players. US Youth Soccer and its State Associations are working diligently to grow the game of soccer in America. Within the disabled athlete community alone we can increase our playing numbers by 500,000. Part of that effort is to have more soccer clubs offer TOPSoccer to the disabled athletes in their community. Florida Youth Soccer is taking on this effort and has now conducted their first US Youth Soccer TOPSoccer coaching course under the direction of Dean Frost, Chair of the Florida Youth Soccer TOPSoccer Committee, and Virgil Stringfield, Associate Director of Coaching-Educational Services for Florida Youth Soccer.

Forty-six coaches, administrators and TOPSoccer Buddies attended the course. Candidates came from across all parts of Florida and one coach attended the course from as far away as Philadelphia, Penn. That coach was Mike Barr, the Technical Director for Eastern Pennsylvania Youth Soccer. This is another State Association poised to make new inroads by expanding TOPSoccer among their members. The classroom sessions were engaging with good discussion and sharing among the candidates and myself. We had to dodge the rain a bit when we got out to the field, but a great session on the field with TOPSoccer players and the course candidates took place.

One of the key points that came from the field session, and our discussion back in the classroom closing session, was to train these players to the mainstream of youth soccer as much as one can. We should only modify the training sessions and the game of soccer itself when truly needed. The candidates felt that too often coaches and administrators start off with the game and training at too low of a level with the focus being on what the players cannot do rather than what they CAN do. The players will show you what they can do on the soccer field. We coaches just need to be a bit more patient and let the game within the child come to the surface.

If your club does not yet offer the TOPSoccer program to its community please talk to your State Association about getting this rewarding program up and running in your club. There are many resources for administrators and coaches to help you run a successful TOPSoccer program, you just need to step up and take advantage of these services. I hope to see you at a US Youth Soccer TOPSoccer coaching course in the near future.

For more information on US Youth Soccer's TOPSoccer Program, click here.
 

A little look behind the scenes

Sam Snow

There are two recent events that I can tell you about today which you may find of interest. The first was my time at the US Youth Soccer ODP Girls Thanksgiving Interregional event in Coral Springs, Fla. Three age groups participated; players born in 1993, 1994 and 1995. The event was well done, as is always the case and the staff and players even did a good job with adjusting to a complete rain out one day. Now you can read about the matches on the US Youth Soccer Web site and you can see videos with game footage and interviews too. But here are a few things that went on behind the scenes. 
 
First, you have to really admire the dedication to the game by the players and staff who spend Thanksgiving day away from home and family to play soccer. Granted the soccer is very good, with nice fields and warm weather, but still having Thanksgiving dinner in a hotel ballroom with 240 other soccer junkies is quite the commitment. Add to the equation during the week the players had training as well as matches and team meetings. The staff also had additional meetings with the youth National Team coaches, regional coaches and me. Both of those coaches meetings proved to be productive as we unify our efforts to provide a quality US Youth Soccer ODP experience for all participants.
 
Secondly, I have to give a lot of credit to the hard work the age group coaches did with their players. They had a couple of training sessions with them, managed matches, held full team meetings with video analysis from the match played earlier in the day, but they also held individual meetings with every player. Both the team head coach and assistant coach met with each player on the team and gave her a detailed individual critique of her strengths and weaknesses as a player. They then planned goals with each player to make improvements in designated aspects of her game. Wow! Now that's commitment and attention to detail! I don't know of any other youth soccer program in our nation where the staff accomplishes so much and gives so much to the players in a week's time. So, a big pat on the back to all of the US Youth Soccer ODP Regional Staff Coaches.
 
The second event I can tell you about is the lunch meeting I had today along with Matt Moran, Gordon Jago and Randy Jones. Matt is the membership services specialist for US Youth Soccer. Gordon is the executive director and Randy is the tournament director for the Dallas Cup. The Dallas Cup has been running for 31 years now and is considered the premier youth soccer tournament in the world for boys.
 
The four of us met today and discussed the presentation that Gordon and Randy will make at the 2010 US Youth Soccer adidas Workshop in Fort Worth, Texas next February. They will present Managing a Successful Tournament. The insights they will provide on getting and keeping volunteers, building a strong referee group who ask you if they can come back each year, sponsor involvement, community outreach and much more will be of interest to those involved with running a tournament of any size. For example, I was amazed to find out that they have 300 volunteers each year and the majority come back year after year after year. Their tournament is 350 days of work and then 12 days of matches. I know you will learn a lot from these gentlemen on ways you can make your tournament a better experience for all involved.
 
I look forward to seeing you in Fort Worth in February!