Thursday, August 18, 2016
Continuing with a series of postings that highlight free coaching documents form US Youth Soccer here is an excerpt from the Skills School Manual. There is also a full DVD that goes with this manual. Some of the video clips from that DVD are posted on the US Youth Soccer YouTube channel.
The game will show you what the player needs to practice.
In this manual the coach will find the basics of all ball skills. From this core set of techniques the growing player will be able to add on many variations and subtleties to the techniques. This fact most likely applies to players fifteen years of age and older as they fully mature athletically and come to understand how to use a variety of skills in varying game situations. Do not let the developing player’s game become obsessed with frills or skills that, while useful, are used rarely. Be competent in the basic orthodox techniques first. But once that standard has been reached then embroider the player’s skills with the less orthodox techniques as they are serious, positive skills which will help the team and not just please spectators.
During the first fourteen years of a young player’s career the coaching emphasis must be on technique. The actual execution of a movement is always in the realm of technique. The challenge of “when and why” to use a movement is one of tactics. In this manual the focus is the “how to”; that is on technique. Technique is the body’s mechanical execution to affect the ball; for example receiving, catching, shooting, dribbling, deflecting, etc. It is one of the four components of the game and leads to ball skill. Skill is being able to execute a technique under the pressure of opponents in tight space and most likely on the move. Without ball skill a player cannot execute tactics. Some players will:
- be able to do a technique in an activity but fail to apply it as skill when under pressure from opponents
- be competent with the ball but not outstanding
- be technical but not skillful, while others will be skillful but not technical
- be capable of executing some skills against one level of opponent but not another
Players gain more trust and respect for a coach who can help them improve their technique. The result is confident use of new skills in matches. Motivated players spend time working on their skills. Players will appreciate the importance and thrill of learning new techniques and refining existing ones if the coach creates the proper training environment. Then the players begin to equate fun with improvement.
Novice coaches often find themselves in a Catch 22 at training sessions. They can influence young players by helping them develop techniques, but some coaches don’t know enough about the techniques they are teaching to offer relevant advice.
The execution of a technique is broken down into three phases:
PREPARATION – the movements leading up to contact with the ball.
- focus on the feet first as they will impact what happens with the rest of the body and they must get the body to the ball
- look at the distribution of body weight (body posture), the angle of the approach to the ball, the position of the body and limbs in relation to the ball, the position and steadiness of the head, the position and shape of controlling surfaces and the rotation of the body into contact with the ball
- eyes on the ball
CONTACT – the placement of the feet and the posture of the body upon contact with the ball.
- look for the distribution of body weight and how it impacts balance
- observe the hip and shoulder positions, the position of the supporting leg(s), the contact point with the ball and the movement of the limbs
- eyes on the ball
FOLLOW THROUGH – the movement occurring after contact with the ball.
- again focus on the distribution of body weight and posture
- is the follow through complete or halted too soon
- eyes on the ball
Technique should be taught in a progressive manner throughout a player’s career. Every technique coached at one age must be reinforced at the next age. Techniques taught at 6 and Under (6-U) must be reinforced at 8 and Under (8-U), 10 and Under (10-U), 12 and Under (12-U) and 14 and Under (14-U). What was learned at a previous age group or groups must be refined at the next age group. During the childhood years of soccer the general progression of the child’s experience with the ball is for the 6-U age group ~ manipulating the ball, for the 8-U age group ~ propelling the ball and for the 10-U age group ~ mastering the ball.