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Coaches Blog

Sam's Blog is a bi-weekly addition to the US Youth Soccer Blog. Sam Snow is the Coaching Director for US Youth Soccer.

 

Coaching Priorities, League Play and Matches per Year, National Championship Series, Professional Li

Sam Snow

Priorities of Coaching No. 12
We also recommend the prioritization of events by coaches:
- Objectives are identified and a season plan is developed that balances training, competition and rest and recovery.
- The interest of the player must be dictated by the quality of scheduling and the choice of events.
- Entering all the possible competitions/tournaments available can have a long lasting negative impact on basic skill and fitness development.
- A systematic approach will maximize the chances of achieving peak performance by bringing players to peak form for important competitions and minimize the chances for over-training, over-use injuries and burnout.
- We recommend the following training session to match ratios:
U6-U8                          1:1
U10-U12                      2:1
U14-U19                      3:1
- In order for an athlete to adapt (improve technical, tactical and psychological components) there must be periods of low intensity activity or complete rest interspersed with periods of high intensity activity.
- ""More is not better.""  Quantity alone does not improve quality; soccer should be a test of skill not survival.
- Practicing or playing in matches where players are ""going through the motions"" due to fatigue or lack of interest reinforce bad habits and retard development.
- Sound nutrition and ample rest allow for more rapid recovery from intense activity.

League Play and Matches Per Year No. 13
We believe that the optimal playing and learning environment includes participating in no more than two matches per week.  We also believe that players should not compete in more than one full match per day and no more than two full matches per weekend.  There must be a day of rest between full-length matches.  We strongly oppose the practice of scheduling regular season and/or make-up matches in a manner that results in four full matches in the same week.  Modified FIFA rules apply: no reentry per half for the U14 and younger age groups and no reentry after substitution for the U15 and older age groups.  In addition, we believe that players should not compete in more than 40 playing dates in a calendar year.  Players must have one full month off from all soccer activity.

National Championship Series Competition No. 14
We believe that, in order to be consistent with the final stages of the competition, the national tournament for the top players should adopt a no reentry rule for state and regional level play.

The Professional Link No. 15
We believe that the professional level plays a necessary and vital role in the growth and development of youth and amateur soccer.  In all soccer cultures, the professional level serves to provide for the vertical movement of top players and creates the conditions for national heroes to emerge.  The professional influence also accounts for much of the indirect education that permeates soccer societies.  Television ratings and paid attendance have a significant local and national impact on media perception and civic response.  We feel that promoting professional soccer is foundational to all professional coaching positions.
 
 

Competition and Tournaments

Sam Snow

Festivals for players Under-10 No. 9
 
            We believe that Soccer Festivals should replace soccer tournaments for all players under the age of ten. Festivals feature a set number of minutes per event (e.g., 10 games X 10 minutes) with no elimination and no ultimate winner. We also endorse and support the movement to prohibit U10 teams from traveling to events that promote winning and losing and the awarding of trophies.
 
 
State, Regional and National Competition for Under-12s No. 10
 
            We believe that youth soccer is too competitive at the early ages, resulting in an environment that is detrimental to both players and adults; much of the negative behavior reported about parents is associated with preteen play. The direct and indirect pressure exerted on coaches and preteen players to win is reinforced by state "championships" and tournament "winners." We therefore advocate that, in the absence of regional competition for under 12's, state festivals replace state cups. We also strongly recommend that with regard to regional and national competition the entry age group should be U14.
 
Tournament Play No. 11
 
            We believe that excessive play at competitive tournaments is detrimental to individual growth and development, and can serve to reduce long-term motivation. Do not multiple matches being played on one day and one weekend have a negative effect on the quality experience and development of the individual player? Further far too many playing schedules include so many tournaments and matches that there is never an "off season." We believe that players under the age of twelve should not play more than 100 minutes per day, and those players older than thirteen should not play more than 120 minutes per day. 

We also recommend to tournament managers and schedulers:
The players should be allowed ample rest between matches.
That all tournament matches be of the same length and that no full-length match be introduced during play-off rounds.
Kickoff times allow players a reasonable opportunity to prepare for competition. This encompasses rest and recovery, nutrition and adequate time to warm-up and stretch after traveling a long distance in addition to taking into consideration extreme environmental conditions.
 
 

Coaching Licenses, Risk Management and Parent Education

Sam Snow

Coaching Licenses No. 6
 
We believe that competitive level coaches should hold a minimum of a "D" License.  Recreation level coaches should hold a minimum of an "E" certificate, if they are coaching teenage players and an age appropriate Youth Module certificate if they are coaching children.  Coaches working at the top level (premier/classic) should hold a "C" License or National Diploma.  Ideally they should hold a "B" License and/or an Advanced National Diploma.

The overall intent here is to create minimum license requirements in the U.S.A. and to establish levels of license with commensurate levels of play.  We recommend that this implementation be completed by December 31, 2010.

The rationale for these requirements follows:
-      To provide continuing education on the game in the United States of America.
-      To ensure that American coaches have an equal opportunity for education and standards in the game as our domestic and foreign counterparts.  Many countries now require mandatory licensing.
-      To create the appropriate training environment to minimize the risk of injury.  To provide information on the prevention and care of injury.
-      To reduce the risk claims against negligence and to be accountable for background screening.
-      To equal other sports such as softball and ice hockey who have established mandatory coaching education requirement policies.  Ice hockey's rationale is very similar to that of
U.S. Soccer. 

"The coaching education program of USA Hockey is committed to developing coaches through a comprehensive education program at all levels.  Since quality coaching is the single most important element affecting the athletes and the sport itself, the experience athletes' gain through participation will be a direct result of the coach's qualifications, education and competencies.  Therefore, it is paramount that we prepare our coaches through a comprehensive curriculum which follows the different levels of skill progressions for the development of players."
 
Risk Management No. 7
 
We believe all coaches involved in youth soccer should be subject to background checks and that coaching licenses be required as part of the risk management process.  We also believe that each coach should be issued a registration card, certifying that they have completed the risk management process and have attained the required coaching certification.

Parent Education Issues No. 8
 
We believe that parents should be required to sign and comply with a Code of Conduct.  We also believe that proactive and ongoing parent education should be the responsibility of every club and league.  We urge clubs to put the US Youth Soccer Principles of Conduct into the hands of the parents associated with their club.
 

Ages of Play

Sam Snow

Continuing with the Position Statements of the 55 state Technical Directors here are numbers four and five which are closely related to one another.

Age of Competitive Play        No. 4
 
While it is acknowledged and recognized that preteen players should be allowed to pursue playing opportunities that meet both their interest and ability level, we strongly discourage environments where players below the age of twelve are forced to meet the same "competitive" demands as their older counterparts therefore we recommend the following:
  1. 50% playing time
  2. no league or match results
  3. 8 v 8 at U12
Minimum Age for Play     No. 5
 
                We believe that a child must be five years old by August 1 to register with a soccer club for the soccer year September 1 to August 31.  Children younger than five years old should not be allowed to register with a soccer club.