Check out the weekly blogs

Online education from US Youth Soccer

Clubhouse

Like our Facebook!

Play for a Change

Play for a Change

Check out the national tournament database

Sports Authority

Marketplace

Wilson Trophy Company

Happy Family

Nesquik

Capri Sun

Play Positive Banner

Print Page Share

Parents Blog

Susan Boyd blogs on USYouthSoccer.org every Monday.  A dedicated mother and wife, Susan offers a truly unique perspective into the world of a "Soccer Mom". 

 

Honorable Position

Susan Boyd

Hold me back!  Every time I hear about youth teams, coaches, players, and/or parents putting winning ahead of development and ethics I get crazy.  Mike Woitalla in his blog last week in Soccer America told the story of a Nebraska team who facilitated the victory of its opponent, another team from his club, so that they could go on to the state championship competition.  The coach directed his team to allow the opponents to score a goal at the end of 0-0 tie giving the opponent the win which propelled them through to the state championship games.  He knew his team couldn't advance regardless of the outcome, but he also knew that the opposing team from his club would advance with a win.   These machinations came to light when the coach told the opponent's coach of his actions.  I'm sure he expected a big thank you, but to the coach's credit she reported the incident.
               
Now the entire process has been thrown into a tizzy requiring a replay of the games among the three teams contending for a spot in the finals.  Worse several dozen girls were thrown into an ugly situation.  The girls on the team who allowed the goal were put in the position of being asked to do something unethical by their coach, the girls on the "winning" team were put in the position of moving on to the finals knowing that it wasn't directly their skill that advanced them, and the girls on the other teams in contention to advance to the finals were denied the honest opportunity to advance.  Peripherally there are parents, officials, club board members, and state association staff who have been tainted by this action.  We can talk about other factors which have affected the outcomes of games such as bad refereeing or weather delays, but these factors come from within the agreed upon parameters of the game.   We need to accept, begrudgingly sometimes, that soccer games have variants which we can't control but can ultimately affect the outcome of a game.
               
We all know the heartbreak of having a goal called back because of a questionable offside call or a player receiving a second yellow card for flimsy reasons leaving her team a player short.  But these are part and parcel of a human game where subjectivity can be carefully managed but still affect the results of a game.  We tolerate mistakes of human nature because we recognize those mistakes can harm our results sometimes and then boost our results other times.  We don't like it when we lose because of a bad call or a small field, but we know that the next game may have factors that benefit our team.
               
Given the limitations of perfection in any game, at least we all know that the rules attempt to insure fairness.  Maximum ages of players are established and enforced rigorously with birth certificates and player passes, referees have to achieve a certain level of expertise to officiate, coaches must be licensed appropriately for the age level of their team, rules have been written and approved for play, equipment must adhere to standards, and all players must be registered with their club or have appropriate guest player certification.  State associations and governing agencies such as U.S. Youth Soccer Association carefully set forth rules and guidelines for play in youth soccer.  But beyond those official guidelines are the societal ethical guidelines we all understand exist.
               
We can recognize fairly easily when we are operating outside of the boundaries of ethics.  As much as the coach wanted to help his fellow club team, he absolutely knew that doing anything proactively would not be proper.  Asking his players to participate in this behavior put them in a terrible quandary:  Do they support their coach (and club) or do they stick by their own moral compass?  I observed a game once where the coach realized that his team would go through to the finals win or lose, but that the club's archrival team would not advance if his team's opponent won.  So he directed his players to score two own goals to assure the victory of his opponent and thereby seal the doom of his archrival.  I observed attempts to falsify age documents, to play kids who were not on the roster by having them use a rostered player's pass, and to engineer goal differentials.  Most of you have probably observed some improprieties in play, and some of you and/or your children may have been involved in some improprieties.  It's not a great position to be in.
               
As parents we need to reinforce that our kids shouldn't participate in an activity, even one directed by a respected adult, which is outside of the rules of the game.  We also need to reinforce that winning at any cost isn't the goal of soccer.  It's difficult when you can get so close you can taste victory and yet see it slip away.  And it's tempting to help that victory along with questionable assistance.  But we have to resist that urge as parents, coaches, and players.  You can't be truly triumphant when you know that a win was achieved outside of the rules everyone agrees to follow.  Our children need to learn that integrity is the real victory in life.  As a society we are programmed to be winners.  We want the best grades, the biggest house, to beat the car at the light, to get the best deal on a TV, and to send our kids to the top university.  We find it difficult to be content with our normal success and to accept losses along the way.  We attach our self-worth to winning, forgetting that wins don't insure satisfaction.  Living our lives with honor and enjoyment brings the real triumphs of contentment and pride.
 

Team Captain

Sam Snow

Not long ago I was asked about the process of selecting a team captain in youth soccer. The question and comments were this:
 
I have been coaching youth soccer since I was in college back in 1983. I have taken the National Youth Soccer Course, have various other certifications and regularly attend coaching clinics. I have coached several Travel Teams and recreational teams from ages ranging from U6 to U18. I also coached an adult Women's recreation team for six years until two years ago when I stopped coaching. Nevertheless, I am still my town's youth soccer club's vice president. I currently manage my 14 year-old daughter's Travel Team, but I am not the coach. I have a son who plays high school soccer and a younger daughter who plays both U11 Travel and Premiere soccer.
 
In my twenty-seven years of coaching, I have never appointed or had elections for team captains. Instead I have always used a game captain approach beginning around the U11 age group to reward improved play and to give all the children a taste of being a game captain during the season. While I have researched and I understand the utility and benefits of having team Captains at the high school level and above, I firmly believe that it is inappropriate in youth soccer. Recently, my daughter's U11 Travel Coach held elections and appointed two team captains based upon this vote. Her Premier Team does not have Team Captains, but uses a similar game captain approach that I use.
 
All of the parents of the children on the team were very surprised that the coach did this. Indeed, they are all looking to me for direction based on my experience and as the club's vice president on whether to approach the coach about our collective disagreement with the use of Team Captains. I have always also believed that other than when asked by the coach that I do not interfere with a coach's decision unless in my role as a board member to enforce disciplinary action. I am very interested in US Youth Soccer's views on the use of team captains in youth soccer and whether you can direct me to some articles on the subject.
 
US Youth Soccer does not have an official policy on identifying or selecting the team captain or captains. We feel the decision is up to the club to make. If the club does not have a policy in place for the various age groups in the club on the function and selection of captains then the club director of coaching should devise one. From the US Youth Soccer Coaching Department we recommend giving all of the players the opportunity to be the captain at least once per season not just in matches but in training sessions too. That should take place with the U8 to the U14 age groups. The U6 age group does not need team captains in any manner. The U16 and older age groups should have captains voted upon by the players and accredited by the coaching staff. I like these suggestions from Eric McGrath.
 
How to Pick Captains for a Soccer Team
By Eric McGrath, eHow Contributor
 
When looking to create a good team bond from a disparate group of soccer players, it is a good idea for the coach to select good captains in order to maintain discipline in the group, to relay tactical developments during a game, and to keep movement from exercise to exercise as efficient as possible. This article looks at some ideas on selecting the right personnel for this important role in any soccer team.
 
Look within the group for natural leaders. Sometimes these players will lead quietly by example with their behavior and level of play; other times they will be strong vocal personalities. Either way, these personality types will be the most obvious choice for a captaincy.
 
Decide whether the team will have one captain or many captains…
 
Decide whether the captains, if more than one, will be co-captains or a head-captain and a vice-captain. Again, the larger the squad, the more sensible it is to delegate leadership to more than one person. Conversely, for a smaller squad, it probably makes sense to have two co-captains or one head captain and a vice-captain.
 
Observe all possible candidates for captain's roles, and judge them on their presence in the team, the reaction of their teammates towards them, and the methods they use to exert their natural authority on their teammates.
 
Once a decision has been reached, announce the captains at an opportune time when every player is present. Explain the reasons why the specific player or players were chosen, and make sure everyone on the team supports the decision.
 

Settle Back

Susan Boyd

This Memorial Day weekend was spent in a quintessential Midwest setting – a small town park with oak and cottonwood trees, a water tower, pavilion, grills, and eleven baseball fields. It was my grandson's baseball tournament for his 9 and 10 year old travel team. I don't remember either Bryce or Robbie being that good at the game at that young of an age. It was impressive to watch these pint-size Jeters and Brauns school us all in the art of baseball. Other than a smaller field, these kids played with major league rules and occasionally major league expectations.
           
No matter the game, all youth sports share several negatives: the dynamics of parent-child interactions, conflicts with officials, uneven coaching, and reluctance to play on the part of the child. Happily with my grandson's team there seemed to be few negatives. Some parents got a bit intense, especially when the team came close to defeating the state champions, but for the most part parents were either supportive or silent. No one questioned the referees other than an occasional "ooh" when a close pitch wasn't called as we expected. The coaches stayed positive and instructive. Only one time did a player indicate a reluctance to enter the game. Other teams weren't so fortunate with parents making angry demands on the players both during and after the games, coaches who berated the players, and passive-aggressive remarks to the officials. Coming across the best and the worst of youth sports makes me wonder what we can do to smooth out the situation and improve the conditions.
           
The main difficulty is that those of us who have gone through years of youth sports have the wisdom of experience, but most families have just started the process.  Without that perspective of time, it's difficult for parents to realize what could be better. And since most of us have years of participating in and watching adult sports we can only model ourselves after those behaviors. I admit to seeing a fly ball sail past the glove of the left fielder this weekend and muttering, "Oh rats!" knowing that the guy on third was going to score. I'm used to watching Ryan Braun snag those with great confidence and tremendous athletic skill to pull in the impossible ball. Had Braun missed that fly ball, the crowd would have erupted in venomous disappointment. So it's difficult in a youth game to rein in the editorial comments that would spring naturally to a crowd in a professional game. Nevertheless, we parents have an obligation to make that distinction.
           
How do we keep youth sports not only civil but fun? We parents need to set the tone every step of the way.  We need to keep our coaching to a minimum. I know how hard it is to see your child commit the same mistake game after game and not say anything. So pick one big issue to address before each game and only address it once briefly. Keep the majority of remarks upbeat. I also have found that there is peace in numbers. The team parents who remind one another on the sidelines to stay positive do manage to fulfill that behavior. I've watched parents huddle before a game to repeat some variant of a mantra of "Stay positive, no coaching, and respect the referees." The most demonstrative parents know that they have a standard to maintain and that the other parents expect it. As parents we can also help to monitor during the game and issue gentle reminders as some parents get too vocal. I've seen the spectrum from complete decorum to sideline jousting matches between parents on opposing teams. I definitely prefer the former!
           
It's more difficult when it comes to the coaches. We all want the best coaching we can get for our children. No matter how much we may say we only want our kids to have fun playing sports, we can't help having an eye to the future. What if our son or daughter exhibits both skills and passion for their sport? What if they can excel at the sport? Then they'll need strong coaching and a strong team. So we may find ourselves excusing boorish behavior from coaches because we don't want to risk losing those coaches. Remedies aren't easy. I've attended club board meetings where parents turned in letters to complain about a coach's behavior and had their issues belittled and ultimately ignored. Clubs can get very touchy about their coaching staff since it constitutes a portion of the club's reputation. Parents may reasonably feel powerless to act. Often there's no good choice: stay with the coach or leave the team. I would follow my child's lead, although he or she may also feel that options are limited to unhappy choices. My sons had a great coach who conducted amazing practices and taught the players so much, but in game situations a switch went off and he became more concerned with winning not just the game but every call with the referees.  Parents had a hard time reconciling the training coach with the game coach. But we all stuck with him because we recognized that the training he provided our sons ultimately outweighed the sideline behavior during games. And our kids agreed which made the decision easier.
           
The toughest issue can be when our kids express reluctance to play. We can have a hard time determining why. For some kids the reluctance comes from transitory issues such as their cleats hurt or someone said something mean. For other kids the issues are far more serious such as not enjoying the sport or feeling uncomfortable with the coach. Kids usually have trouble expressing their real reasons because they can feel our expectations and our pride in their participation. They don't want to disappoint us. Letting our kids know that they do have the option, within certain guidelines, to quit a sport gives them the confidence that they have an out if they need or want it. Most parents expect their child to finish the season. That seems reasonable. It sets up a standard that insures kids don't just quit on a whim and doesn't harm the team to which they made a commitment. Often kids end up working through their concerns as they meet their commitment, and if they don't then we have confidence as a parent that those concerns are serious.
           
Watching our children play sports on a beautiful spring day brings great pride and joy. We need to keep the innocence of youth in mind despite how adult they play. As one of Robbie's teammates told us parents on the sidelines we need to "settle down." And I'll add we need to just enjoy the ride. Whether they win or lose we'll love them just the same, so that should help take the anxiety out of the equation. As the mother of a goalkeeper, I can assure you the less anxiety you feel, the better.
 

Coaching Ball Skills

Sam Snow

I get asked some great questions about our beautiful game and I enjoy the dialog. So, here's a discussion on coaching ball skills I've had with a youth coach.
 
I have been looking at the Skills School: Fundamental Ball Skills document. I have also read that the focus should be on technical, not tactical at the younger ages. How does one use the games and activities method of practice - for example, for U-6 players - and at the same time teach those players shooting, dribbling, balance, running, jumping and movement education? For example, the document says basic running mechanics must be taught and reinforced as part of movement education in the U-6 and U-8 age groups and those motions can be reinforced during warm-up or cool-down activities with the U-10 and older age groups. Do the games teach the skills or should they be coached; if the latter, when and how?
 
I'm glad you've had a chance to read over the Skills School manual, I hope you have enjoyed it. Actually, there is a shared focus on both technique and tactics from U-6 to U-19 that is the essence of the games-based approach. That approach is best learned through reading the material on the website for Teaching Games for Understanding: http://www.tgfu.org/. Now, of course the "tactics" for U-6 are very simple - which goal to shoot at and at which one to block shots. Tactics for that age group also includes where is the field and beginning to understand the concept of boundary lines. The teaching of tactics and how to use ball skills to pull off your tactical ideas gradually progresses to quite complex levels by the U-19 age group. We want coaches to teach ball skills in game context as well as some rehearsal of the body mechanics of ball skills as a separate component of training. The teaching of balls skills when done in game-like activities gives the kids notions on how those skills can be used. The problem for American players over the last 30 years has been that we teach ball skills in an isolated way (drills) and then using them in the right moments in a match eludes many youngsters. Or some coaches have gone too far the other way and only play games and take little or no time to teach skills. As with most things, it is striking the balance that creates the best environment for development.

Part of the idea of using game-like activities is that a novice coach can use just the activity, not say anything, and the activity will teach the players. However, the same activity in the hands of a more knowledgeable and experienced coach can go further with some well-timed coaching points and guided discovery questions.

Now, as to movement education, we can incorporate those movements into warm-up, cool-down and inside many activities during the training session. Our coaches of U-12 and younger players need to accept that they are now the physical education teacher as well as the soccer coach. This is needed for our kids since so many schools have reduced or eliminated P.E.

A good deal more of these methods of coaching and age appropriate training will be presented in the US Youth Soccer Player Development Model.
 
Thanks, I followed everything in your email and I knew and agreed with most of it. One thing you said that I want to understand, should the entire practice be games that teach the kids or is there a part of practice that should involve "some rehearsal of the body mechanics of ball skills as a separate component of training" as your e-mail states? If so, what does that part of practice look like and when during practice should it occur and how much time and how often?
 
There's not really a set formula to each training session. Yes, the majority of training should be within game-like activities and then free play (match). This is especially true for the U-12 and younger age groups. That approach continues to hold true for teenage players but the need for functional training increases.

So- your questions of when during a training session, how much time and how often to rehearse the mechanics of ball skills is not one easy to answer with a set formula. Frankly, deciding when the players need that type of work is the art of coaching as opposed to the science of coaching. That answer though is troublesome to those who think analytically...they feel comfortable with set patterns. I find it interesting that some coaches want a predictable pattern to training soccer players, yet the game itself is organized chaos. When do things go as planned during a soccer match? We must train our players and our coaches to be flexible and to think on their feet - literally and figuratively.

So back to ball skill mechanics, I can teach those within the context of a game-like activity. Using proper questions and some modeling gets the point across to most kids. Another way to help improve ball skills that is underutilized by our clubs is mixed age group training. We are far too sterile in our training environment. We should have more instances of the U-9 and U-10 players training together instead of separately. And the U-10 team should training with the U-11 team now and then. I do not mean scrimmage one another but mix the players together and train. One of the wonderful aspects of player development in the Hispanic soccer culture is teenagers training with and playing with adult players. We need a LOT more of that in mainstream soccer!
 
I appreciate all the time and thinking that went into your response. On the training across age groups, while that may be a good idea, as a practical matter I am less concerned about different ages in organized practices and I would like to see content that helps explain how to create opportunities for free play, supervised but unstructured, street (or park or neighborhood) soccer, that involves a wider age range - and I will want your views on how wide a range is okay.
 
Well, when it comes to pick-up games, the older the players get the wider the age range can be. There was very good logic behind the traditional age groupings in youth soccer of U-6, U-8, U-10, U-12, U-14, U-16 and then U-19. The difference in psychomotor, psychosocial and cognitive development is significant prior to late adolescences and early adulthood. These three domains of human development impact soccer players in technique and tactics. Fitness improves as athleticism develops and under proper fitness training by knowledgeable P.E. teachers and some coaches.   (Most youth soccer coaches are insufficient in their knowledge of physical education to tailor the lesson plan to the needs of an age group, much less an individual. That deficiency is not confined to volunteer coaches.)
Clearly, the differences in the four components of the game and the three domains of development are distinctly different between a 6-year-old and a 10-year-old for example, or a 15-year-old and a 19-year-old. So, a range of two to maybe three years in pick-up games is acceptable from a risk management perspective up through early adolescences at approximately age 15. Once into the late teens and early adulthood the age range can and should expand.

Saying that, having talented adult players, who know how to control their emotions, could play in pick-up games with all of our kids from age 5 to 19. The kids do enjoy it when the adults play with them from time-to-time, but NOT all the time. Remember that one of the core ideas behind having pick-up games is giving the game back to the players. However, having a soccer talented adult play with the kids occasionally can provide great examples for the young player. This is in concert with the theories of Lev Vygotsky. He was a Russian psychologist (1896-1934) who advocated that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. "Zones of proximal development" defined the limits of learning. So the practical application of this theory in pick-up games is older players participating among younger players.

So, how to fit street/pick-up soccer into clubs? Well, many of them are already doing so. They tend to be the clubs that have had coaches who have gone through the NYL and they take the lessons taught in the course on street soccer and apply them to their team or the entire club. Many of our US Youth Soccer ODP coaches do the same at Olympic Development Program camps - even to the extent of mixing players from different states onto teams.

These clubs have educated the players' parents and the board of directors on the benefit of pick-up games. This is a crucial step so that the adults can understand how they are getting their bang for their buck. Of course, once the kids play and return home fully enthused about the experience all resistance from the adults ends.

In the National Youth License course there is a classroom presentation on "street soccer", which is directly followed by the candidates going onto the field and playing in the set up described. The session on the field ends with a review and critique of the session by the candidates and instructors.