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Sam's Blog is a bi-weekly addition to the US Youth Soccer Blog. Sam Snow is the Coaching Director for US Youth Soccer.

 

Why No Keeper until U-10?

Sam Snow

Here is the Position Statement of the 55 state association Technical Directors on the position of goalkeeper.

We believe that goalkeepers should not be a feature of play at the U-6 and U-8 age groups. All players in these age groups should be allowed to run around the field and chase the "toy," a.k.a – the ball. For teams in the U-10 and older age groups, goalkeepers should become a regular feature of play. However, young players in the U-10, U-12 and U-14 age groups should not begin to specialize in any position at this time in their development.
 
The analysis of most soccer experts is that small-sided games for young children are most beneficial for learning basic motor skills, learning basic rules and fundamental concepts of the game. They also learn how to interact with their peers within a game involving a ball. What is not supported is the use of goalkeepers in this format. Children want to run, kick the ball and score goals. Every child should experience the triumph and success of scoring a goal. They don't do well when told to stand in one place. If the action is at the other end of the field, a young goalkeeper will find some other activity to hold his or her attention.

Young children have great difficulty tracking moving objects, especially if they are in the air. Most will duck or throw hands in front of the face if the ball comes toward the head. Children younger than ten are very reactionary in their movement behavior. Anticipating where the ball might be played is a skill that has not yet developed. This ability does not really develop until age nine or ten. Prior to age nine visual tracking acuity is not fully developed. Players have difficulty accurately tracking long kicks or the ball above the ground.  Beginning at approximately age ten one's visual tracking acuity achieves an adult pattern. 

Striking the ball at a small target accurately is a challenge for all children. Goalkeepers restrict the opportunities to score goals to a select few players. Young children "stuck in goal" will not develop goalkeeping skills. Young players are more likely to get hit with the ball than to actually "save it."

It is important to wait until children are better able to physically, mentally and emotionally to handle the demands of being a goalkeeper. There are no goalkeepers in the 3 vs. 3 and 4 vs. 4 format through age eight and then introduce goalkeeping in the 6 vs. 6 format beginning at age nine. This still allows plenty of time for children to grow up and be the best goalkeepers they can be and most likely keep them engaged in playing soccer for many years to come. Once players take on the goalkeeper role they tend to grow in the position through three general stages. Those stages are shot blocker, shot stopper and finally goalkeeper.

The shot blocker stage is one where the goalkeeper simply reacts to shots after they have been taken. He or she tries to get into position to make saves and these literally are sometimes merely blocking a shot and not making a clean catch. The attacking role of the shot blocker is usually just a punt of the ball downfield.

At the shot stopper stage a player has progressed to not only making saves after a shot is taken but also being able to anticipate shots. With this improved ability to read the game the shot stopper gets into better positions to make saves and begins to stop shots from being taken in the first place. The shot stopper now comes out on through balls and collects them before a shot is taken. The shot stopper also cuts out crosses before opponents can get to the ball. The shot stopper comes out in one-on-one situations and takes the ball off the attacker's feet. The shot stopper can deal with the ball both before and after a shot is made. Distribution with some tactical thought on the attack is also developing for the shot stopper.

The goalkeeper stage sees your player with all of the talents of the shot stopper and then some. The goalkeeper is the complete package. The goalkeeper is highly athletic and physically fit. The goalkeeper is mentally tough, composed and confident. The goalkeeper has the full set of skills for the role to both win the ball (defending techniques) and to distribute the ball (attacking techniques). A full-fledged goalkeeper is indeed the last line of defense and the first line of attack. A goalkeeper not only makes saves but contributes to the attack with tactical and skillful distribution of the ball. The goalkeeper is physically and verbally connected to the rest of the team no matter where the ball is on the field. A first-rate goalkeeper is mentally involved in the entire match and is therefore physically ready when the time comes to perform.[i]

So from U-10 to U-19 teach players when they are in goal to follow these rules.

Cardinal Rules of Goalkeeping [ii]

1.      
Go for everything!
You may not be able to stop every shot that comes your way, but if you make the attempt you will find that you are stopping shots you never before thought possible. You will also have the personal satisfaction that at least you made the attempt and your teammates will be more forgiving even if you miss.

2.      
After a save – get up quickly!
If you have gone to the ground to make a save get back on your feet as fast as possible. Look for a fast break distribution or to direct your teammates into position to receive a build-up distribution. This aspect is particularly important if you are injured. You cannot show weakness, you may tend to your injury after you have started the counterattack. This will particularly intimidate your opponents and raise the confidence in your teammates.
 
3.       Do not be half-hearted --- 100% effort!
Every time you make a play it must be with all of your ability. If you go half way you will miss saves and injure yourself.

4.      
Communicate loudly!
You must constantly give brief instructions when on defense. When your team is on the attack, come to the top of your penalty area or beyond and talk to your teammates and offer support to the defenders. Be mentally involved in the entire match, no matter where the ball is.

5.      
No excuses! No whining! Just get on with the match.
If a goal is scored against you, a corner kick is given up or the shot is a near miss, do NOT yell at your teammates even if it's their fault. Do NOT hang your head; kick the ground or the post if it was your fault. During the match is no time to point fingers or make excuses. The play is over, it's ancient history; get on with playing the remainder of the match. Focus on what lies ahead!


[i] Wait Until They're Ready by Dr. David Carr; 2000
[ii] Cardinal Rules of Goalkeeping by Winston Dubose and Sam Snow; 1979
 

Warm-up and Cool-down

Sam Snow

Over the last two years I have made a point of attending matches at the US Youth Soccer National Championship Series, the US Youth Soccer Presidents Cup and the US Youth Soccer Olympic Development Program Championships. At those tournaments, coaches and tournament organizers need to provide for appropriate warm-up and cool-down for the teams. By and large this is being done for the warm-up, but not for the cool-down. 

Impacting the physical performance was the warm-up, cool-down and off the field habits. While all of the warm-up routines seemed to be well conceived and executed, a few were far too long. A 45 minute warm-up is not needed in heat and humidity. Cool-down was not done at all in some cases and only moderately in other cases. A proper cool-down of about 20-30 minutes is in order at this level of play and in summer conditions. It was noted that some teams took massages away from the fields as a part of their regeneration, which is recommended to all teams.

At all venues appropriate space must be designated for team warm-up and cool-down. With so little time between matches the game field itself is not always available to meet these needs. A part of venue selection and layout must be adequate and safe areas blocked off for team preparations. At the end of a match the teams need to complete a cool-down and the two teams coming on need to continue their warm-up. The teams in the cool-down phase should adequately hydrate, then move their gear to the touchline beside the end quarter of the field and then conduct the cool-down in the area designated in the diagram below. The teams in the warm-up phase have the rest of the pitch to use. The teams in the cool-down phase may use the designated area for ten minutes and then clear that space for the teams in the warm-up phase.

alt
 

'Tis the Season for Giving

Susan Boyd

Last week I talked about some ways you could find appropriate gifts for the soccer player or fan in your family. But we also realize that many children don't have access to even the barest necessities of life including food, clothes, medicine, and housing. Many soccer associations and players have formed charitable organizations to address the needs of children through the game itself. While there are literally hundreds of these organizations throughout the world, I'd like to point out a few that could use your support this holiday season as well as the rest of the year. Consider donating to one of these foundations as part of your gift giving tradition.

America SCORES (www.americascores.org) is an innovative foundation that serves 14 metropolitan areas in the United States. It provides after school soccer for inner city kids while also engaging them in a writing and literacy program. Using soccer as a means to both recruit and excite the children, the foundation then shifts during inclement weather to a literacy program tied to the kids' experiences both on the soccer pitch and in their world.  Sponsors of the program are diverse ranging from ASCAP, which is a song composers' organization to adidas. Nearly 100% of donations to the organization are used directly for the program as it is largely volunteer-staffed. The poetry the kids have created in the program has been featured on Wall Street and the Sunday Boston Globe.

Many of you will use Hanukkah and Christmas as a time to replace cleats, jerseys, and other soccer equipment, most of which will still be useable. The U.S. Soccer Foundation (www.ussoccerfoundation.org/site/c.ipIQKXOvFoG/b.5438455/k.CCC2/Passback.htm) sponsors a program called Passback which collects, organizes, and sends out used soccer gear to kids in need both here in the U.S. and around the world. Usually they will advertise a collection two or three times a year through each US Youth Soccer State Association office. Clubs are asked to collect donations and bring them to the state office. Or you can organize your own collection and arrange with the foundation for pick-up. Naturally monetary donations are also welcomed.

In 1997 Garret Hamm, Mia's brother, passed away due to complications from aplastic anemia. The best hope for a cure for many patients is a bone marrow transplant. Therefore Mia formed her Mia Foundation (www.miafoundation.org) to raise research funds for and awareness about bone marrow transplants and to provide support for families going through the process. In addition she uses her foundation to promote the growth of women's sports. She wants to see the progress made in the last ten years continue so that all girls who wish to play sports have that opportunity.

With the first ever World Cup in Africa coming in 2010, eyes will be upon both South Africa and on the entire continent. Unfortunately HIV and AIDS continue to be a deadly epidemic throughout Africa. In 2002 Tommy Clark, who had played soccer professionally in Zimbabwe and then became a physician, joined with other soccer players, including Ethan Zohn who won Survivor, to form Grass Root Soccer (www.grassrootsoccer.org). They had the idea that kids learn best from people they respect as role models. So using soccer players and the sport, the organization entered Zimbabwe with the mission to stem the advance of HIV/AIDS in the country through a soccer centered education program. Using an innovative "Skillz" program, the foundation teaches kids how to prevent HIV. The program has now spread to other African nations and has the support of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

All over the world soccer can be found in the most impoverished areas of any country or city. In the United States soccer has gained a reputation as a more elitist sport for those who have the money for club fees, travel, and top gear. However, in the streets of Rio de Janeiro or the dusty back fields of Botswana, kids play soccer bare foot with a melon or a bucket for a ball. That passion for and universal attraction of the game became the starting point for Street Soccer USA (www.streetsoccerusa.org). Founders use soccer as a means to reach homeless men, women, and children, bring them into a community of players, and create leagues in order to provide them with a purpose beyond crime or self-destruction. The idea is to end homelessness through soccer. The organization has teams in sixteen metropolitan areas. Their model uses a mentoring program to help players get off drugs, deal with mental health issues, find employment, and eventually permanent housing. They have reached 20 percent of the homeless in the areas they serve and have a 75 percent success rate in affecting a life change among the population they reach.

We can affect a major change in someone's life with a simple donation of $5.00. Just think if every US Youth Soccer member contributed $5.00 to one of these or any other charitable organization, we would make a net $15 million contribution to those in need. We can be a powerful factor in helping the poor in America and around the world. So please consider clicking on one of the links above and giving them a small donation that when joined with others can be a significant gift.
 

It Takes Thought to Find a Gift that Counts

Susan Boyd

Winter holidays mean three things: the celebration of beliefs and traditions; less soccer; and gift buying. Families make their own decision about the first, and I can't really do much about the second, but I can help out with the third. Soccer fans, especially young soccer fans, have no end of soccer items they want (translate – need) to get them through any winter hiatus and give them a reason to last until spring. Unfortunately soccer gear usually comes with a very high price and professional teams have a way of redesigning their jerseys every year, so that last year's $75 jersey needs to be replaced by this year's $80 jersey. Additionally, star players move among the top international clubs and change numbers as well as affiliations. So kids don't want to be wearing Ronaldinho's Barcelona 10 jersey. They want his A.C. Milan 80 jersey instead. If we had Ronaldinho's $30 million contract, we could easily keep up. But most of us are just trying to get by with far fewer zeros on our pay checks.

So what can we get for a more modest sum that answers the wants and needs of our younger soccer fans? Plenty, it turns out if we think creatively.

Let's start with small items that can be stocking stuffers or help stretch out the gifts over Hanukkah. Zipper pulls run around $3 and come in the classic soccer ball design or in team logos. They can add some pizzazz to a warm up or a soccer bag. And speaking of soccer bags, consider purchasing a luggage tag that you can have custom made for your player. These usually run between $10 and $20 depending on how much customization you have done from name and address on already designed tags to having a cut-out of your club's logo. It certainly helps to quickly identify your child's bag from the long identical line of bags behind the bench. To keep that bag from getting too rancid buy several bag dog deodorizers at $10 each. Shoe bags are a great way to keep mud, indoor rubber confetti, and moisture from ruining everything in the soccer backpack. They usually cost between $10 and $15. Girls appreciate rubber hair bands and sleeve clips that get lost easily. Packages holding five or ten of each usually cost under $10.

Unique gifts for $20 to $50 exist for any soccer fan. Rugs, wastebaskets, sheet sets, wall stickers, and over door hanging racks all come with pro team designs or have soccer themes and can brighten up a bedroom. I found a magnetic soccer cork board that hangs on the refrigerator and can be used to tack up maps to games, game schedules, and photos and programs making them readily accessible and easy to change. These boards cost between $15 and $30 depending on size and design. Glitter soccer tote bags in hot pink, fluorescent green, and brilliant purple could add that extra flair to a girl's soccer bag and help hold jewelry, hair brushes, and toiletries in style for $17. Mom might appreciate soccer themed jewelry in necklaces, earrings, and hair clips for around $20 each. Dad could go for a soccer tie, soccer socks, or a soccer headband in the $20 range.

Getting a gift for the coach isn't always easy. Any coach who has seen a few years on the pitch already has a cupboard full of soccer mugs and a tree full of soccer ornaments. Finding a more personal and memorable gift can be solved with a few of these items. For around $17 you can get a soccer autograph pillow that every player can sign for the coach. Coach Guy Newman designed a Coach Deck which is a set of cards for $22 which show over 50 drills divided into passing, dribbling, shooting, and defense. They fit easily into a pocket or backpack. For $45 you could get your coach a PEET shoe dryer which he and she would definitely appreciate so that they didn't need to stand in wet shoes on the sidelines for several games over a tournament weekend. Buying a soccer frame and then making a collage with team photos, autographs, and team records would create a wonderful personal coach's gift for under $50.

Instead of jerseys which can run as much as $100, consider buying a club team or national team flag for around $40. The boys hung them as room dividers and on their doors. For a bit less you can buy a soccer scarf for $25 either for national or individual professional teams. Robbie and Bryce hung them around the top of their walls like a border and put pictures they cut out of soccer magazines under the scarves to show who was on what team. And that's another great gift to consider, soccer magazine subscriptions. These can run $20 to $50 for a year. Players who want to be serious about the game should be reading up on the sport on a regular basis. Some titles are soccer specific such as Soccer America, Four Four Two, Fair Game (women's soccer) and Soccer Times while others are general sports magazines such as ESPN which always has a great soccer section. 

With the World Cup next summer in South Africa, World Cup themed gear has erupted. Every kid wants the official World Cup ball which is $150 and is sure to be lost or stolen in the first practice. Or for $25 to $40 you can get a replica World Cup ball which will also probably disappear, but with a smaller blow to the wallet. Few of us can attend the World Cup, but we can all attend live soccer games. So consider getting tickets to MLS games, MISL games, college games, or even high school games. I can guarantee that there is live soccer within an hour of 80% of American families. Support your local college or junior college teams by attending a game or two or becoming a season ticket sponsor. Usually players on these teams are fairly accessible to spectators and the teams are always looking for volunteer ball boys and girls. Going to a local soccer game can be cheaper and more entertaining than going to a movie. So look around for an opportunity to buy some tickets as gifts.

I don't endorse any particular Web site for finding these gifts. Most can be located using a simple browser search engine and typing in "soccer gifts" or even specific items such as "World Cup ball." I do suggest that you also locate promotional codes for the website you land on by searching "promo codes" on the web since many venues offer free shipping or 10% off using one of the codes. With some creativity and some bargain hunting, you can pick up great soccer gifts for your players and fans without falling back on the expensive standbys such as official jerseys and warm-ups. However, if you want the ultimate gift for your player, consider having a large, even life-sized wall clinger poster for up to $200 made from a high-resolution photo of your son or daughter. Several online businesses and even your local photographer offer this option. If you can afford it, this would be a memorable and personal gift for the holidays.