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Coaches Blog

Sam's Blog is a bi-weekly addition to the US Youth Soccer Blog. Sam Snow is the Coaching Director for US Youth Soccer.

 

What are Checking Runs?

Sam Snow

Last June a National Youth License coaching course was held in New Jersey. One of the coaches in the course had his U10 girls’ team come out to be demo players in the U10 training activities run by the course candidates. During those sessions I (Sam Snow) mentioned to the group of coaches about the quality decisions being made by those players on their positioning and movement within the activities. They clearly were beginning to think one step ahead in the game. They also backed up their decision making with good ball skills. A week or so after the course the coach of those players sent me a message part of which I copy here:
 
"After watching my girls – you mentioned that the next thing I should work on was checking runs. That is a topic that there doesn’t seem to be too much material on and yet I am wondering if you were suggesting to make it an entire lesson – or just part of what they do during a session on triangles? I am sure this is elementary to you – but I wanted to get your thoughts on introducing the checking runs, any activities or games? Or should I just use it as a coaching point? Any help would be appreciated."
 
I replied to the coach and as I always do I copied the state association Technical Director. The New Jersey Youth Soccer Technical Director is Rick Meana (RM) who is also an instructor for the National Youth license. From my response to the club coach, Rick and I began a discussion on off-the-ball movement. In the Principles of Attack this is called Mobility.
 
Adjustments in positioning and runs to get to the right spot on the field are what tactically aware players do throughout a match whether they are attacking or defending. With that fact in mind, here’s the discussion beginning with part of my reply to the club coach.
 
SS: It’s good to read that you are continuing to work with the girls on the triangle shape in their defending and attacking play. When you think the players are ready, add the idea of the checking run to create space for yourself to activities 3 and 4 in your session plan. Checking Run: a feinting technique that involves taking a few quick steps in one direction before turning and sprinting in another.
 
Attacking Runs
 
RM: So moving on with this area -- they say 98% of the game at the top level is spent without the ball -- various "locomotor" movements, etc.
 
7 possible movements a player will make in a game without the ball:
 
1. Checking (away from and back to the ball --U10-12s?)
 
2. Supporting (to a teammate under pressure --U8s?)
 
3. Penetrating (between opponents, preferably through a different "seam" that the ball travel through; i.e., straight ball being played to an angled/diagonal run-- and an angled/diagonal ball being played to a straight run)
 
4. Unbalancing (to the blind/off-ball side of the opponent)
 
5. Clearing (out of a wide channel for a teammate penetrating run)
 
6. Overlapping
 
7. Withdrawing (into a wide channel)
 
So my question from what ages is possible to address/train these runs? 
 
SS: I think all seven movements are possible with the top U12 teams – far left on the bell curve – think the best U12 teams at Houston Dynamo, Seattle Sounders, etc. I believe some of the off-the-ball movements (mobility) are assigned to appropriate ages in the US Youth Soccer Player Development Model (PDM).
 
1.  Checking – I think the idea can be introduced at U10 and then clearly a part of the training plan from U12 onward.
 
2. Supporting – I think the idea can be introduced at U8 and then clearly a part of the training plan from U10 onward.
 
3. Penetrating – well one could say that penetrating runs occur for U6 and onward. However, tactically timed penetrating runs through the seams of the opposing team likely won’t start until the U12 age group. I think there are college teams that have a difficult time with this type of attacking run – as opposed to just mindlessly sprinting up field. Again players to the left of the bell curve in the U12 age group could read the run, but they will need a really good coach to help them see the tactical moment and to take advantage of it. When to run and when to not make this run will be the biggest challenge to teach.
 
4. Unbalancing runs – U14 and onward. I think runs number 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 will be a lot for the U12 age group to learn well enough for it all to be a conscious part of their game. Third attacker runs for the U12 age group are possible if it’s presented in a somewhat concrete manner, such as far post runs on a cross or a corner kick.
 
5. Clearing – the notion of run out of a place to open that space for a teammate is an idea that U12 players can comprehend. Again make it a bit concrete for them with a tactic like – when the left or right fullback overlaps then forward players should pinch in toward the middle of the field to help open the space on the flank.
 
6. Overlapping – the tactic could be taught from the U10 age group and onward. The problem for the U10 players with this tactic will be patience – theirs and their parents, and possibly their coaches, too. However, players who are not expected to run-n-gun all the time could add the overlap to their attack.
 
7. Withdrawing – do you mean this move as the opposite of clearing? If yes, then I think for sure U14 and older players will understand the maneuver.
 
RM: Yes--- for withdrawing run I mean an outside MF or winger getting "sideways on" or "butt to the touchline" or "white on your boots" type run.
 
SS: OK, so "withdrawing" is to get out as wide as possible when on the attack; get some chalk on your boots. I think that even U10 players can begin to grasp that idea, especially if they get passes from teammates when they are wide on the pitch and wide open from marking. However, the idea of withdraw in order to create space for a teammate in the central channel of the pitch may not click for the kids. It’s an indirect reward for a 10-year-old. For example, Sam says, "Yeah my run opened up Rick, but he got the ball instead of me. I made the run, why didn’t I get the ball?"
 
We then carried the discussion over to runs made when defending.
 
Defending Runs
 
1. Pressing
2. Closing 
3. Tracking
4. Marking
5. Covering
6. Sliding over
7. Stepping Up
8. Dropping Off
 
SS: First I have two questions. Are numbers 2 and 7 essentially the same? If # 2 is about the first defender and # 7 is about 2nd and 3rd defenders then the breakdown of the eight types of defensive off-the-ball movements make sense to me. My second question, is sliding over in item 6 the same as pinching in?
 
With these thoughts in mind here’s my age group introduction of each type of run:
 
1. U6 – true it’s not an intentional tactical thought, but it is occurring and should be encouraged.
 
2. U8 – the idea of controlling your speed as you close down the dribbler I think can be planted as a seed in the minds of U8 players.
 
3. U10 – for sure the straight forward notion of pick up an opponent and run with him or her when your team is defending is comprehensible to this age group.
 
4. U10 – it’s concrete, but since its off-the-ball I think the skill can be taught at U10 but not sooner.
 
5. U10 – the coach will have to be patient though as the kids will often forget to recover in order to cover.
 
6. U12 – this is a much more abstract recognition of space and a tactical moment in the game.
 
7. U12 – this age group could get the idea since it is a way to stay compact and I think that idea, both for defending and attacking, is important to teach and reteach from this age onward. However, only coaches with solid understanding of the principles of defense will be able to teach the concept in a way the U12 players will understand
 
8. U12 – since it’s just the opposite of "stepping up" then I think it could be introduced.
The last two tactical movements, stepping up and dropping off, are only introduced to the U12 age group. I think consistent execution of those defending tactics begins at U14.
 
RM: YES and YES to your two questions!
 
SS: Based on our discussion the saying that U12 is the Dawning of Tactical Awareness jumps off the page.

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"Be Yourself..."

Susan Boyd

"... Everyone else is already taken."  - Oscar Wilde
 
This year, one grandson decided to play lacrosse for his middle school sport. He’s never played before; in fact, he has never played an organized team sport. Luckily, most of the boys on his team are also new to lacrosse, although several have played sports prior to joining the team. He has watched his uncles play soccer and heard the numerous soccer stories we tell with great pride. He has also witnessed his two male cousins, who play baseball and football, get lots of strokes for their achievements. When he was visiting this summer I could tell how excited and proud he was to join the ranks of his sporting relatives. He talked about lacrosse every chance he got, lamented missing some of the practices while visiting in Wisconsin, and expressed his great excitement that he would soon be practicing and playing. He told us about all his equipment and when visiting his cousins found himself with some common ground for discussion with them as they talked their various sports exploits. While we were in a Christmas shop in Niagara-on-the-Lake, he found a rack of lacrosse ornaments and asked if I would buy him the one that had a shield and a lacrosse stick. On the shield was printed "If you can’t play nice – play lacrosse." He loved the tough guy sentiment. 
               
While I naturally am always rooting for my grandkids to play soccer, I quickly realized that each child had to find his or her own path that might not even include any sport. Those who play sports all excel at different sports. My granddaughters have selected dance and horseback riding to express their more active side, but they also are very much into art. It’s a wonderful hodgepodge of interests that gives each of them their own identities. Yet there are still bridges between each that allow for connections with one another’s interests. Why is it important that they be unique? How can we help our children maintain their individuality? 
               
How often do we hear, "All the kids are doing it!"? We recognize that with conformity comes ironically a mix of anonymity and positive peer regard. Fads like loom bracelets and sagging pants make kids feel like they are part of a group, safe from criticism and confident in acceptance. Some things we find benign enough to allow and other things we see as dangerous precedents. When our oldest daughter wanted her ears pierced at age 8, we were hesitant. It was a huge fad at the time and all the "cool" girls had pierced ears. But we also worried that she wasn’t old enough to care for her ears properly or to understand the ramifications of putting a nearly permanent mark on her body. Ultimately, we gave in. She got one ear pierced, screamed and refused to have the other ear done. We actually ended up begging her to get the piercing. Ironic! Our boys both asked for tattoos when in their senior year of high school. Now that’s really permanent! We discussed all the concerns we had and told them they had to wait until they were 18 because we weren’t signing off on the procedure; most importantly, they had to pay for it themselves. They must have been very motivated because they each have a tattoo. 
               
We tried to pick our battles, but at every step we were conscience of the allure of "fitting in" by being as much like everyone else as possible. Shopping at Water Tower Place in Chicago, I witnessed three suburban moms ascending the escalator. They each had brunette blunt-cut hair pulled back in a ponytail, white tuxedo shirt, blue jeans, black ballet slippers, and long mink coats. Triplets couldn’t have been more similar. I realized that the need to fit in doesn’t end when we conquer acne. Who among us has the courage to break away from the herd and go in a different direction? Some might call such actions foolhardy. After all, who wants to live next door to the neighbor with the "prairie" lawn or the fuchsia paint job? Who wants to be that neighbor themselves? Conformity allows us to operate as a society under an umbrella of laws that maintain structure and order.
               
Yet just this last week we celebrated the 50th anniversary of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s "I Have a Dream" speech, which encouraged citizens to strive for a change and to be leaders in a non-violent revolution, which by definition means to break away from conformity. Being unique means thinking for oneself. Being unique can translate into leadership. Being unique frees up our creativity. Being unique takes us outside of the box to new discoveries about ourselves and our environment. Finding a balance between being distinctive and being a conforming member of a group isn’t easy no matter our age. It is usually harder for kids, who don’t have the maturity to react with independence when faced with peer pressure and group dynamics. Kids are willing to make waves, but unfortunately that’s usually with their parents and authorities in order to fight to be an integrated, conforming member of their peer group. Add to the mix a team sport like soccer, where kids wear uniforms, have a prescribed regimen for practices and games, and aren’t generally rewarded for being a renegade — instead, they’re recognized for conformity to the team’s demands. Look at any youth girls’ soccer team, and you’ll observe this level of running with the group. In addition to prescribed uniforms, most young girls attempt to add distinctive elements that only serve to highlight their conformity. Most wear the same headbands, sleeve clips, undershirts (necessary when dealing with the sheerer uniforms), shoelaces, and even similar boots in similar colors. Even as they step outside the standard uniform, they partake in standard behaviors.
               
Kids on sports teams may also be timid about becoming leaders on their squad, not wanting to draw unwelcomed attention to themselves. We parents have observed the on-field spats that arise when a player attempts to direct the action or make a suggestion. Players become defensive if corrected by a peer and lash out. Most youth players aren’t interested in creating conflict to promote their ideas and stand by their position. There’s always a popularity pecking order, so if a child lower in the order attempts to emerge with some leadership he or she could face censure. Popularity has never been a measure of someone’s ability to be a leader, but it often controls who can step into the role. Players who have strong skills and a well-developed soccer brain may not rise to the level of their abilities simply in order to protect whatever position they presently hold on a team, rather than risk criticism or ridicule.
               
How do we help our children develop a sense of individuality? Obviously, our own example helps create the backdrop to support this lesson. We need to make clear to our kids why we make the choices we do. In my entire time growing up, my father always bought used cars except once in 1959 when he bought a new Ford Fairlane completely stripped down — no radio and no white walls allowed. So, even when we finally had a new car it didn’t look or drive like a cool car. However, my dad always made it clear why he did this. He wasn’t going to lose 30 percent of the value of his purchase before he even got it home. In his world, cars were not status symbols but a means to get from point A to point B at a minimum of cost and trouble in relative comfort. So while our next-door neighbor bought a Thunderbird, we lived with our Fairlane for 10 years until my dad bought a giant Buick station wagon for a family trip to the East Coast that could accommodate our family of seven and all our gear including tents, sleeping bags and Coleman stoves. Because, naturally, my dad wasn’t going to pay for a hotel room! He was a highly respected, successful dentist and real estate speculator who once sold land to Bill Gates to build his first Microsoft campus. But he said he would let his accomplishments speak for themselves rather than advertise his success with possessions. Naturally, as a teenager I was aghast at his choices. We lived in a really wealthy community and all my friends belonged to the country club, had fancy homes and cars, and went on extravagant vacations. The important fact, which I failed to note at the time, but realize now, was that they were my friends despite my less than glamorous lifestyle.
               
This bittersweet lesson has certainly helped me be a better parent when it comes to teaching my kids the value of celebrating their unique characteristics. Did my kids want to fit in and follow the group like lemmings over any cliff? Of course they did. But we were able to have good discussions about the wisdom of such blind loyalty. The victories weren’t necessarily often or readily apparent, yet they existed nonetheless. We parents have the opportunity to share with our children the benefits of striking out on their own in some areas. Our younger daughter loved to wear striped shirts with plaid skirts or mix purple with orange leading to some ridicule at school. Eventually, however, she garnered respect for her fearless choices. If we can notice those moments and praise them, we will go a long way to helping our children develop the inner determination to stick with unpopular choices. This could lead to resisting drugs, alcohol and sexual activity. If kids succumb to peer pressure in seemingly innocent situations, they end up being less equipped to resist the bad peer influences. We can discuss with them how they don’t have to be judgmental when they choose to swim outside the main stream. They need to simply point out that certain choices make them uncomfortable, but they don’t expect everyone else to behave like they do. By expressing their position they also often find that other kids have been silently supporting the same position. This enables kids to identify that the perception of what the group wants isn’t always the truth of the matter.
               
We parents recognize that adapting to the group is part of normal youth development. So we pick our battles when it comes to demanding that our children don’t follow suit. Whenever we put our foot down we need to have a discussion as to why. While it becomes cliché, the truth is that when our offspring say, "all the kids are doing it," we need to focus on the word "all" and point out that it’s just not true. I probably said "our family is different" a gazillion times, and I know most of you have said the same thing in some form an equal number of times. When our kids listen and agree, we need to be quick with our support. Ultimately we aren’t trying to mold our child in our image, but we can hope that they absorb our morals and our vision for their unique development. Oscar Wilde knew about being special with his flamboyant and often unaccepted lifestyle, but he stuck to his image because that gave him peace despite the turmoil. If more of us celebrated the uniqueness of others there would be less bullying and less intolerance. Giving our kids the freedom to express their own distinctiveness is a gift with significant and meaningful ripples.

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Needless, Heedless, Wanton Injury

Susan Boyd

When we enroll our kids in any youth sport, we don’t plan to put our kids in harm’s way. We vaguely consider the possibility of injury, especially when buying shin and mouth guards, but we don’t dwell on those chances. We expect that 99 percent of our children’s participation in a sport will strengthen their health, fitness and ability to work well with others. We wouldn’t be surprised at a few bumps and bruises, and we do know that broken bones and torn ligaments come with the territory. Yet, we don’t see any of these injuries as a reason to be cautious. Unfortunately, there are some darker inflictions that stain youth sports with serious consequences. Some are unpreventable, but we can actually protect our kids from many of the most horrendous injuries with proactive vigilance and intervention.
               
Recently, the news reports have been filled with depressing stories of young players facing paralysis, brain injury, even death from injuries they incurred while playing. While some players had pre-existing conditions that led to their injury, such as heart defects or blood disorders, most suffered from a direct result of the sport they were playing. These severe injuries can be attributed to overuse and underdevelopment of the body, unsafe conditions, aggressive coaching and ignoring symptoms. As parents, we can educate ourselves about these situations so we can better ameliorate their costs. We need to be serious advocates for the safest possible playing conditions. Certainly sports require contact and fierceness, which can lead to injury, but those injuries should be within normal expectations, not extreme cases with life-threatening or life-altering results.
               
Overuse and underdevelopment harm comes when youth players aren’t properly trained physically or are pushed to practice tactics far above their developmental level. Young people have muscles, bones, ligaments and tendons that are still strengthening and growing. Expecting them to perform the way adult players do can lead to serious and long-term injury. For example, girls have a higher incidence of ACL injuries, but there are proven training exercises they can do in the younger years to help protect their knees. Youth players don’t always have the control to pull back on tackles and kicks, or they may lack the impulse control that keeps them from stomping on players who are down. Therefore, we need to be sure that coaches are carefully monitoring players and staying on top of the behaviors of the most aggressive team members. Doing repetitive skills and movements can lead to stress fractures, but also to strains that can be even harder to resolve than a sprain, tear or fracture. Kids need to do warm-ups and cool-downs every practice and game to protect their bodies. No one should be pushing any player to attempt skills beyond those that their bodies and brains can handle. In fact, kids should be concentrating on skill development up to age 12 or 13 and not on games. The stronger their development, the stronger their ability to resist both common and serious injury. Find a club that recognizes the need for youth players to be developed fully before they begin aggressive competition.
               
All too often kids face unsafe conditions when they play, which we should be monitoring. The biggest problem is dehydration. We are all too often loathe to stop a game or a practice for water breaks, but the numbers of players who suffer from heat exhaustion and heat stroke grows every year. These are serious conditions that can lead to brain injury and even death. Often by the time symptoms appear it can be too late. We need to insist that players remain adequately hydrated. We also need to be aware of dangerous playing surfaces. We don’t want to embarrass other teams by reacting to their field environments, but huge pits, exposed sprinkler heads, overly slippery conditions, and debris on the pitch can contribute to serious and avoidable injuries. No game or practice should be conducted in unsafe conditions. This also means lightning, which too many of us ignore. The guidelines state that all players, fans and staff need to clear the field and go to covered safety at the first sign of lightning, which includes thunder, and should not be allowed to return until there has been no weather activity for 20 minutes. We may think lightning is far away, but since it is dictated not by air strikes but by ground conductivity, we can never be sure of when a charge could appear. Finally, we need to be sure that all goals are properly anchored and prevent kids from hanging or climbing on them. Every year, kids are hurt by falling goal stands that they have pulled over on themselves, which can lead to various injuries.
               
While we all love to win, we have to be cautious about overly aggressive coaching. Coaches should be properly licensed and well aware of the development levels and abilities of their players. For example, a coach that encourages slide tackles younger than U-12 risks injury either to his player, the opponent or both unless the skill is properly taught and the players have enough maturity to use them wisely. No coach should ignore weather conditions and should watch carefully and plan for hydration. Coaches of young players should be focusing on the development of players’ skills and bodies. Team tactics and games can come later when young bodies are better equipped for those stresses. Most importantly, a good coach will put safety first. There are pieces of safety equipment beyond shin guards that young soccer players might consider using such as head guards and heart protectors. Even if a coach doesn’t insist upon them, he or she should be sure no player is ridiculed for using that equipment. Creating an environment where kids understand boundaries means protecting them from serious, avoidable injury. Coaches should seriously rein in any player who acts too aggressively or violently. Kids need to learn the appropriate levels of attack and when restraint is called for. If a coach likes to see kids bully their way through a game, he or she is risking player injury.
               
Even if a child is injured, we can help keep the long-term bad effects at a minimum by not ignoring symptoms. Kids complaining of joint, muscle and head pain should be checked out. Minor injury can turn into major injury if not treated properly when it happens. Most commonly ignored are concussions. We’ve learned over the last few years how best to treat a concussion and the importance of treating them completely. Any head injury means a player shouldn’t play again that day, but any head injury with any amount of black out, even for few seconds, should be seen by a doctor immediately. We’ve all seen players stride defiantly to the sidelines after a bad hit, anxious to keep playing, and a few moments later collapsing due to brain inflammation. In addition to concussions, any joint or extremity swelling should be regarded as serious until the cause is medically determined. Small, normally insignificant tears or strains can turn into far more debilitating injuries if not treated properly. Strains should be treated with applications of either heat or cold per the doctor or trainer, and kids need complete rest from playing to recover. We certainly don’t want our kids to become hypersensitive to illness and injury, but we also don’t want them to exacerbate a simple injury into a worse one. Treat complaints matter-of-factly without undue drama. You can be sympathetic without being panicked even if your child seems to have something serious. Calm on your part will help your child stay calm. Be very aware of any signs of dehydration that doesn’t require just high heat and humidity to appear. Over exertion can bring on symptoms. Encourage your child to take responsibility for staying hydrated and for noting any light-headedness or stomach cramps that can be the first warnings of heat exhaustion or stroke. Most importantly, teach them to keep the coach informed if they feel they need medical attention.
               
Although youth players collapsing from concussions or heat stroke isn’t common, and horrible injuries where a hit in football or a ball striking the chest resulting in serious consequences are mercifully limited, many of even these outcomes can be avoided with pre-emptive measures. If kids play within their physical limits, aren’t pushed by coaches or parents to stretch beyond their abilities, and recognize and treat their minor injuries right away, they can usually play safely without long-term interruptions. While crutches, braces and casts might be badges of honor among players, they also represent the possibility of enduring impairment. We want our kids to feel free to play with some abandon, but we also need to be vigilant for any trouble.

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Player Behavior

Sam Snow

I coach a soccer team made up of 13 and 14 year old boys. I have a couple of players that are "bratty." They want to do what they want; they roll their eyes when being coached or whistle when the coach is talking to them. Should I give in to them or kick them off the team?
 
On a number of different levels, the early teens are a challenging age group to coach. It is a normal part of this age to test and push the limits of those with authority over them – parents, teachers and yes, soccer coaches too. Nevertheless, when it comes to team behavior coaches should follow this saying, "The standards you get are the standards you set."
 
In this instance I would not go to either extreme of giving in to them or cutting them from the team. The next time one of them behaves inappropriately in front of the team, coaches or team manager, then immediately pull that player aside individually and address the matter directly. The head coach must make it clear to the player what behaviors are unacceptable in the culture of the team. Do not punish the player at this time. Be matter of fact in the tone you take and with your body language. Your goal here is twofold. First, you must begin to modify the player(s) behavior; and secondly, you want to keep the player(s) in the team. If the player(s) act out again during that training session or match, then remind the player of what had just been discussed. Be consistent in your expectations of the players. But don’t harp on it either. Don’t take the misbehavior personally—it is kids testing limits. That testing is sometimes a youngster’s way of finding out if this adult authority figure really does care about them.
 
If the inappropriate behavior continues after a week or two of the coach addressing it directly with the player, then ask the parents to be involved in the next discussion with the player. Ask the parents to support mature behavior by their child so that it benefits the team, respects the staff and aids in the growth of the player.
 
If the behavior still does not improve, involve the club director of coaching and/or the club president in the discussion with the player and parents. After that step is taken and if the misbehavior continues then, the club makes the decision to release the player from the club. This is the final step and hopefully all options have been exhausted before dropping a youth player. Our overarching goal in all of youth soccer must be to keep kids in the game for a lifetime.
 
I think another analysis of the inappropriate behavior should be reflection by the coach on the training methods being used. The seed of the problem could be poor coaching and/or management of the training environment. Sometimes young players act out when the coach fails to avoid the three L’s: lines, laps and lectures. Coaches should avoid these actions during a training session. When these actions are present in a training session it is not only inefficient use of training time, but it is also boring. The kids came to training to play soccer. They did not show up to stand with the coach and talk about soccer, stand in a long line waiting to kick the ball one time and then go to the back of the line or to run laps around the field. They came to training to PLAY soccer! When coaches move away from drills in training sessions and instead use game-like activities then the players are fully engaged physically and mentally. The challenges of game-like activities and the problem solving situations they present are not only fun, but they help players develop to a higher level of soccer. Take it a step further and have the players who have been acting out to be the leaders in some of the activities. Ask them questions during the training session that cause them to think deeply about the game, give them leadership responsibilities and challenge the limits of their talents. When the abilities of these players are met with an appropriate soccer challenge then it is likely that the misbehavior will disappear.
 
A coach can tell the difference between a drill and an activity by using the activity checklist. Whenever you put together a lesson plan for a training session ask yourself these questions:
 
  • Are the activities fun?
  • Are the activities organized?
  • Are the players involved in the activities?
  • Is creativity and decision making being used?
  • Are the spaces used appropriate?
  • Is the coach’s feedback appropriate?
  • Are there implications for the game?
 
Soccer is easy to teach to children because many of them already know a good deal about it and many simply enjoy the sport. Simple principles, professional organization, appropriate incentives, and unlimited encouragement—-any coach worth the name can hardly fail. Even more important, he or she will gain enormous gratification from the pleasure and satisfaction gained by the children.

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